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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission file number 001-39116
Katapult Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
81-4424170
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
5204 Tennyson Parkway, Suite 500 Plano, TX
75024
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(833) 528-2785
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareKPLTThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Redeemable WarrantsKPLTWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.             Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.          Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes    No  

Based on the closing sale price of $10.81 for our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of outstanding shares of common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $593 million. This calculation excludes shares of the registrant's common stock held by current executive officers, directors and stockholders that the registrant has concluded are affiliates of the registrant. This determination of affiliate status is not a determination for other purposes.

The number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding as of March 11, 2022 was 97,854,865.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement for our 2022 Annual Meeting, expected to be filed within 120 days of our fiscal year end, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Page
Item 2.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
93

In this report, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise indicates, the terms "we," "us," "our," the "Company," or "Katapult" refer to Katapult Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries.















SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, (“Annual Report” or “Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this report, including statements regarding our opportunity, our future results of operations and financial condition, business strategy, and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “assume” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potentially,” “predict,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

execution of our business strategy, including launching new product offerings and expanding information and technology capabilities;
our market opportunity and our ability to acquire new customers and retain existing customers;
general economic conditions in the markets where we operate, the cyclical nature of consumer spending, and seasonal sales and spending patterns of customers;
failure to realize the anticipated benefits of the business combination with FinServ Acquisition Corp.;
factors affecting consumer spending that are not under our control, including, among others, levels of employment, disposable consumer income, prevailing interest rates, consumer debt and availability of credit, pandemics (such as COVID-19), consumer confidence in future economic conditions and political conditions, and consumer perceptions of personal well-being and security;
risks relating to uncertainty of our estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth;
risks related to the concentration of a significant portion of our business with a single merchant partner, or type of merchant or industry;
the effects of competition on our future business;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on our business;
reliability of our platform and effectiveness of our risk model;
protection of confidential, proprietary or sensitive information, including confidential information about consumers, and privacy or data breaches, including by cyber-attacks or similar disruptions;
ability to attract and retain employees, executive officers or directors;
meeting future liquidity requirements and complying with restrictive covenants related to long-term indebtedness;
effectively respond to general economic and business conditions;
obtain additional capital, including equity or debt financing;
enhance future operating and financial results;
anticipate rapid technological changes;
comply with laws and regulations applicable to our business, including laws and regulations related to rental purchase transactions;
stay abreast of modified or new laws and regulations applying to our business, including rental purchase transactions and privacy regulations;
maintain relationships with merchant partners;
respond to uncertainties associated with product and service developments and market acceptance;
anticipate the impact of new U.S. federal income tax law;
that we have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting which, if not corrected, could affect the reliability of our consolidated financial statements;
successfully defend litigation;
litigation, regulatory matters, complaints, adverse publicity and/or misconduct by employees, vendors and/or service providers; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from civil unrest, war, foreign invasions (including the conflict involving Russia and Ukraine), terrorism, or public health crises, or responses to such events.

Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Other sections of this Form 10-K may include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate



in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, achievements, events, or circumstances. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this report or to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations. You should read this Form 10-K and the documents that we have filed as exhibits to this report with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (ir.katapultholdings.com), our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, webcasts, press releases and conference calls. We use these mediums, including our website, to communicate with investors and the general public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available on our website may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website. The contents of our website are not incorporated into this filing. We have included our investor relations website address only as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.





Part I
Item 1. Business

Corporate History and Background

Katapult Holdings, Inc., formerly known as FinServ Acquisition Corp. (“FinServ”), was incorporated in the state of Delaware in August 2019 for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. On December 18, 2020, FinServ entered into that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated December 18, 2020 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among FinServ, Keys Merger Sub 1, Inc. (“Merger Sub 1”), a wholly owned subsidiary of FinServ, Katapult Intermediate Holdings LLC (formerly known as Keys Merger Sub 2, LLC) (“Merger Sub 2”), a wholly owned subsidiary of FinServ, the entity formerly known as Katapult Holdings. Inc. (formerly known as Cognical Holdings, Inc.), a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Katapult”), and Orlando Zayas, in his capacity as the representative of all pre-closing stockholders. On June 9, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), the transactions contemplated pursuant to the Merger Agreement were consummated through the merger of Merger Sub 1 with and into Legacy Katapult, with Legacy Katapult surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of FinServ (the “First Merger”), followed immediately by the merger of the resulting company with and into Merger Sub 2, with Merger Sub 2 surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of FinServ (the “Second Merger” and collectively with the First Merger, and the other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement, the “Merger”). On the Closing Date, and in connection with the closing of the Merger, FinServ changed its name to Katapult Holdings, Inc. and Merger Sub 2 changed its name to Katapult Immediate Holdings LLC.

The Merger and related transactions were accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in United States of America (“GAAP”). Under this method of accounting, FinServ was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes with Legacy Katapult determined to be the accounting acquiror. This determination was primarily based on Legacy Katapult’s stockholders prior to the Merger having had a majority of the voting rights in the combined company, Legacy Katapult’s operations represented the ongoing operations of the combined company, Legacy Katapult and its former owners had the right to appoint a majority of the directors in the combined company, and Legacy Katapult's senior management represented the senior management of the combined company. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Merger was treated as the equivalent of Legacy Katapult issuing stock for the net assets of FinServ, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of FinServ are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. See Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on the Merger and related transactions.

Our wholly owned subsidiaries are Katapult Intermediate Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company formed in December 2020, Katapult Group, Inc. (formerly known as Cognical, Inc.), a Delaware corporation incorporated in March 2012, and Katapult SPV-1 LLC, a Delaware limited liability company formed in March 2019. Legacy Katapult was incorporated in the state of Delaware in 2016. Since April 2019, Katapult SPV-1 LLC has originated all of our lease agreements with customers and owns all of the leased property since April 2019.

Unless otherwise noted, “we”, “us”, “our”, “Katapult”, and the “Company” and similar terms refer to Legacy Katapult and its subsidiaries prior to the consummation of the Merger, and Katapult Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries after the Merger.

Company Overview

We are a next-generation platform for digital and mobile-first commerce focused on the non-prime consumer. We provide point-of-sale (POS) lease-purchase options for the underserved U.S. non-prime consumer who may be unable to access traditional financing products to purchase everyday durable goods from our e-
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commerce merchant partners. Our proprietary technology solution is designed to drive engagement by our network of merchants with the underserved non-prime U.S. consumer. We believe our merchant partners benefit from higher retail conversion and greater marketing spend efficiency being able to reach this underserved segment.

The platform is designed to provide consumers a frustration-free checkout experience that is simple, easy and transparent. Consumers complete a three-step application and our fully automated approval process generates a decision in five seconds or less on average. We empower customers by providing flexibility in their lease-to-own arrangement. Customers can make payments on a weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly or monthly basis, and we offer transparent payment options, including allowing customers to make payments for their full renewal term, exercise an early purchase option (buyout), or return items if they have life cycle events or decide their needs change. In addition, we do not charge late fees.

Our solution is designed to enable merchants to efficiently promote and move inventory by allowing merchants to reach a previously inaccessible customer with the goal of driving incremental sales and lowering customer acquisition cost.

We have platform integrations with leading e-commerce platforms and prime lenders. Through e-commerce platform integrations with Shopify, BigCommerce, Magento, and WooCommerce, among others, we can complete initial integrations with merchants with ease. Our prime lender integrations lead to higher approval rates for merchants who have included us as a payment option, ensuring that consumers have options at the checkout and merchants make the most of every consumer site visit.

Technology is at the core of everything we do from simplifying the customer experience to driving repeat transactions. Our proprietary risk models have been built on alternative data sets, including data from over 800,000 lease-to-own transactions and over six plus years of repayments. Furthermore, the platform’s risk management models are built to utilize machine learning to incorporate additional data from new lease-purchase transactions.

From inception through December 31, 2021, we have approved more than 1.8 million customers. We had a net promoter score (NPS) of 54 as of December 31, 2021. NPS is a score that measures the likelihood of users to recommend a company’s products or services to others, and ranges from a low of negative 100 to high of positive 100, and benchmark scores can vary significantly by industry. A score greater than zero represents a company having more promoters than detractors.

For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, total revenue was approximately $303.1 million, $247.2 million and $91.9 million, respectively. In 2021 we experienced revenue growth of approximately 23%. We generated net income of approximately $21.2 million and $22.5 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We incurred a net loss of approximately $18.8 million during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

Industry Background

Our lease-purchase platform offers consumers an alternative to traditional financing of electronics, computers, home furnishings, appliances and other durable goods. Non-prime consumers typically do not have sufficient cash or credit to obtain these goods.

Lease-to-Own Transaction

A lease-to-own ("LTO") transaction is a flexible alternative for consumers to obtain and enjoy brand name merchandise with no long-term obligation. Key features of our lease-to-own transactions include:

Access to e-commerce retailers. We are a transaction option at checkout for well-known e-commerce merchants such as Wayfair, Lenovo, Nectar, and Purple.

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Convenient payment options. Customers make payments on a weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly or monthly basis. Payments can be automatically charged to the customer’s authorized credit card, checking account or debit card. Additionally, customers may make additional payments and exercise cost-saving early payment options.

No long-term commitment. Customers have the flexibility of no long-term commitment and may return the item under the terms of the lease agreement if he or she does not exercise a purchase option or renew the lease.

Virtual Lease-to-Own Market

According to management estimates, the total addressable market for the virtual lease-to-own market is estimated to be approximately $40 - $50 billion. Based on our 2021 gross originations, we believe that we currently capture less than 1% market share in this market.

Our Solution

We believe we are transforming the way non-prime consumers can purchase durable goods by providing a seamless, easy, and transparent application and checkout experience.

Consumer Features

Lease-to-own of durable goods. We empower consumers with access to a path to ownership for new and used durable goods and accessories to support such goods with a leasable amount ranging from $100 to $3,500.

Simple process and efficient approval. Through an easy 3-step application process requiring basic information inputs and no hard credit check, consumers receive fully-automated approval on average in less than 5 seconds.

Flexible repayment options. Customers can elect to lease an item for the full term, pay off the lease early, or return the item at any time during the term of the lease. To lower the total cost of the lease, during the first 90 days of the lease, customers have an option to purchase the item for a total cost-to-own of the cash price of the item plus a 5% fee in certain states. A $45 fee is also charged in certain states. After 90 days, an early purchase option is available at any time which permits customers to purchase the item for meaningfully less than the full-term cost-to-own as described below. Our customers have the flexibility of no long-term commitment and may return the item under the terms of the lease agreement if he or she does not exercise a purchase option or renew the lease. The payment term for the lease ranges from 10, 12 or 18 months. Payment frequency can be weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly or monthly based on a customer's pay frequency.

The total cost a customer may pay in connection with our lease-purchase transaction depends on certain factors, including, but not limited to: (1) total cost limitations, which vary across states and generally range between 2.0 and 2.25 times the cash price, referred to as the Lease Multiple, (2) the maximum length of the lease agreement term (typically 10-18 months), (3) whether the early purchase option (buyout) is exercised, and (4) whether the customer exercises their right to terminate the lease, without penalty if current, thereby ending additional renewal payment obligations. In general, during the first ninety (90) days, our customers have the ability to purchase the good for the cash price of the item plus 5% and any applicable fees (including initial fees, where applicable) and taxes. After ninety (90) days, but prior to reaching the maximum renewal term, the customer may exercise the purchase option at a discount on the remaining lease renewal payments (typically 55–65% of the remaining renewal payments).

Customers may renew through the maximum term at which point they will have paid approximately 2 times the cash price to own the item. Customers have the option to terminate the lease at any time with no penalty or
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further obligation (other than the lease cost already incurred). Upon termination, the customer must return the durable good that had been leased, which can be returned to us or the merchant if within the merchant's return period. Lease-purchase transactions, unlike credit or a loan, are not subject to variable interest rates and do not include finance charges. Below is an illustrative timeline depicting the total cost a customer would pay at certain points during the life of the transaction:

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Merchant Features

Marketing capabilities. We enable merchants to offer non-prime consumers a lease-purchase option at point of sale, which is coupled with Katapult tools and digital resources to attract, identify and educate consumers on the Katapult option for paying over time.

Analytics. We provide merchants with insightful analytics that help them understand performance and activity associated with non-prime applications. The platform also offers other key insights into customers’ shopping habits to help merchants optimize customer conversion and customer acquisition costs.

Client success support. Our client success team partners with merchants to analyze and interpret the insights delivered through the merchant platform. Our team conducts in-depth user experience analyses of merchant online storefronts, providing custom recommendations for the ideal mix and display of our product offerings to present to customers in order to optimize average order values and conversion rates.

Simple integration and highly customizable solution. Our off-the-shelf, custom integration options are designed to provide seamless flexibility to merchants seeking efficient and effective rollouts of digital POS solutions.

Developer documentation. Our developer portal contains extensive developer documentation that makes it easy for developers to integrate via turnkey solutions, custom application programming interfaces ("API"), hosted programs, or other integrations.

We believe that merchants realize the following benefits from our platform:
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More customers. Merchants add incremental customers from the non-prime segment who otherwise might not be shopping on their site.

Better conversion. Merchants have the potential to increase customer conversion when they offer our platform as it provides customers an alternative financing solution.

High rate of repeat customers. Our easy-to-use platform has generated a loyal following of repeat customers (defined as customers who have originated more than one lease with Katapult over their lifetime). During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, 41% of our gross originations were completed with repeat customers.

Ease of integration. Our direct API allows for fast integration with minimal investment with merchants able to easily connect the platform to their existing online shopping cart. Moreover, we provide a dedicated integration team to ensure efficient rollouts.

Merchant Partners

We are party to an agreement with Wayfair Inc., dated November 24, 2020, whereby we provide Wayfair customers with lease-purchase options for certain Wayfair products directly on Wayfair’s customer website (the "Wayfair Agreement"). We originated approximately 63%, 70% and 60% of our gross originations for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively through the Wayfair Agreement. We originally entered into a retailer agreement with Wayfair in September 2018, which was superseded by the Wayfair Agreement. The Wayfair Agreement continues for successive two-year terms and may be terminated by either party at any time and for any reason provided that the terminating party provides written notice sixty days prior to the date of termination. The Wayfair Agreement does not prohibit Wayfair from offering LTO options from our competitors. The Wayfair Agreement allows us to benefit from Wayfair’s broad range of product offerings and market ourselves to a larger audience of consumers who may seek alternative payment options

As of December 31, 2021, we had over 150 total merchants on the platform. Our top ten merchants in the aggregate represented approximately 90%, 90% and 87% of our total gross originations for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Developer-First Approach to Integration

Our platform is designed to be easy and seamless to integrate regardless of integration method:

Platform plug-in: Our API is fast and easy to integrate with a number of e-commerce platforms, including Shopify, Magento, WooCommerce and BigCommerce. Integrations with these platforms allow merchants to offer the Katapult lease purchase as an option at checkout, process our charges in their respective order management systems, and gain access to the Katapult's platform-based analytics software while maintaining control over the customer experience.

Direct API: Our API enables merchants to fully control the placement and experience of our offering, which we believe aids the seamless integration of our lease-purchase option into the merchant’s existing infrastructure.

Waterfall partnerships: A waterfall is where the application will flow from the prime lender to other financing and lease-purchase options automatically; this gives the consumer the best option for their situation. Our technology supports sophisticated integration with these partners with the goal of ensuring a smooth and efficient customer transaction experience during application and checkout.

Our Technology and Risk Assessment Model

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Native E-Commerce Solution

We were born and bred to be an e-commerce solution for consumers and we believe we are the only non-prime consumer POS lease-purchase platform focused on e-commerce. We offer a fully-digital, seamless and differentiated platform driven by proprietary technology and risk models that have been developed over several years.

Technology, Engineering Talent and Product Architecture

Our proprietary technology platform is essential to our core operations. We utilize modern, cutting-edge technology including sophisticated behavioral machine learning models and cloud-based computing designed to offer a seamless digital consumer experience on the front end as well as a constantly evolving real-time decision engine on the back end. In order to build these proprietary, innovative and secure products, we place a significant emphasis on identifying and employing talented and driven technology-focused professionals and engineers.

Data Driven

Our proprietary technology platform combined with data collection, accumulation and analysis provide us with meaningful insights that allow the business to perform better. As additional data from new transactions is continuously incorporated into the risk assessment models, algorithms and business practices, we are able to improve our risk assessment model, algorithms and business practices over time. We believe this allows us to further mitigate repayment and fraud risk. Additionally, we leverage customer preference and activity data to identify opportunities for repeat business, new customer offerings and general performance enhancements.

We use a complex set of proprietary approval and existing customer modeling to achieve low levels of fraud and high payment performance, with the goal of protecting consumers, merchants, and us. The platform checks approximately 100 transaction attributes and up to 2,000 data points in aggregate across the fraud detection and risk models, from a minimum of seven user inputs consumers provide and data acquired from other sources.

Proprietary Risk Assessment Models

Our proprietary, end-to-end technology platform has been designed and built to handle the volume and data from e-commerce transactions. The system is non-FICO based, relying on internally developed scoring and analytics to identify appropriate customers for our lease-purchase offering. Our behavioral learning-based risk models are designed to effectively price risk and provide customized recommendations. The platform considers data beyond traditional credit scores, such as lease history, behavioral biometrics and mobile device information to predict repayment ability, and leverages this with real-time response data.

Lean and Scalable Model

Compared to brick-and-mortar non-prime options, we have been successful in addressing the non-prime consumer through POS solutions on e-commerce merchant websites.

As compared to brick and mortar non-prime options, we believe our model focused on the e-commerce POS lease-purchase option is efficient and scalable for the following reasons:

• Over time as transaction volume grows, we are positioned to achieve more operating leverage. Our model is primarily driven by a technology platform that does not require significant increases in operating overhead to support sales growth.

• We have no inventory risk and offer a drop-ship option. We do not have the costs associated with buying, storing and shipping inventory. Instead, goods are shipped directly to consumers.

Our Growth Strategies
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We believe we have several strong levers for growth including the opportunity to increase market share of the e-commerce durable goods market. We estimate that we capture less than 1% of the virtual lease-to-own market, based on our 2021 gross originations.

We believe we will significantly benefit from increasing e-commerce adoption, deepening relationships with existing merchants, and further partner expansion. New merchants and partner POS integrations, as well as product enhancements and new product diversification also present additional areas of potential growth. In addition, data analytics services and merchant co-marketing initiatives and dynamic consumer scoring models are other potential avenues to drive growth.

Our multi-pronged growth strategy is designed to create opportunities that drive value for consumers and merchants. Near-term areas of focus include expanding to higher-frequency transactions, expanding customer reach, and expanding merchant reach.

Significant levers for continued organic growth

Deepen relationships with existing merchants. Currently, our transactions represent a modest percentage of the average transaction volume for merchants on the platform. We believe we can increase our share of existing merchants’ overall transaction volumes with our technology, by proactively building relationships with merchants and our customer base through dedicated sales and customer success teams.

Partner expansion. We have identified thousands of eligible merchants offering durable goods that could benefit from access to our platform. We plan to pursue business relationships with eligible merchants on these platforms, as well as identify and integrate our platform into new or emerging systems and networks to attract additional merchant communities. We have expanded our sales and business development teams to pursue these merchants.

New merchant and partner POS integrations. We have the opportunity to increase the number of integrated merchants on the network through our dedicated sales team and referral relationships.

Product enhancements and new product diversification. We plan to enhance our current product offering and diversify with new product development with the goal of helping merchants increase conversion rates, repeat transaction rates and customer satisfaction.

Expand Consumer Reach

Add more consumers to the network. As more consumers join the network, our risk models become more efficient and robust, thereby positioning us to reach more non-prime consumers reliably. Merchant co-marketing initiatives intend to attract new consumers to try lease-to-own as a payment preference.

Drive repeat use. We aim to continue driving repeat use of our platform by treating customers with respect, identifying consumer needs and focusing on customer satisfaction, paired with delivering data analytics to merchants to support shopping behaviors.

Innovate on new product solutions. We are focused on innovating and bringing new financial partnerships and products to market for non-prime consumers.

Competition

We compete with national, regional and local operators of lease-to-own stores, virtual lease-to-own companies, traditional and e-commerce retailers (including many that offer layaway programs and/or installment payment options), traditional and online sellers of new and used merchandise, and various types of consumer finance
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companies that may enable customers to shop at traditional or online retailers, as well as with rental stores that do not offer their customers a purchase option.

Sales and Marketing

Our marketing strategy includes brand marketing, communications, and co-marketing campaigns that we collaborate on with our merchant partners. Brand marketing increases awareness among consumers and merchants, helping them understand the benefits of our platform. We utilize dedicated sales teams and leverage strategic partnerships with other platforms to expand our merchant and consumer base.

Seasonality

We experience seasonal fluctuations in our revenue as a result of consumer spending patterns. Historically, our revenue is moderately seasonal and strongest during the first quarter primarily due to historically gradually increases in the fourth quarter as a result of the holiday season, as well as the receipt by our customers in the first quarter of federal and state income tax refunds. Our customers will more frequently exercise the early purchase option on their existing lease agreements or purchase merchandise during the first quarter of the year. Adverse events that occur during these months could have a disproportionate effect on our financial results for the fiscal year.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

Human Capital Oversight

Our employees are critical to our success. As of December 31, 2021, we had 130 employees primarily located in the United States. We also engage a small number of consultants and contractors to supplement our permanent workforce. To date, we have not experienced any work stoppages and maintain good working relationships with our employees. None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement or are represented by a labor union at this time.

At Katapult, our people are our most valuable resource and critical to our success. We believe in an open and collaborative work environment which encourages employees to be accountable and take ownership in their performance and development. Our executive management team creates a culture and environment where every team member can achieve success. The Compensation Committee of our board of directors is engaged in the oversight of our employees, work environment, and compensation practices, and receives regular updates from management on progress and developments, and our executive management team and Compensation Committee receive regular reports on progress against our annual human resources goals.

We offer competitive compensation to attract and retain top talent. Our total compensation packages generally include market-competitive salary, bonus, sales commissions and equity awards. We strive to provide competitive compensation packages to all employee positions consistent with skill level, geographic location and experience. At least annually, we review our compensation practices internally and with the assistance of a third-party compensation consultant.

Regulatory

Government Regulation

Our operations are governed by the requirements of numerous federal and state laws, and by the agencies that interpret and enforce those laws. This summary is not intended to be a complete summary of the laws referred to below or of all the laws regulating our operations.

There are currently 46 states, plus the District of Columbia, that have enacted lease-purchase statutes which set forth core requirements for our personal property lease-purchase transactions. These laws dictate our obligations with regard to consumer disclosures, pricing maximums, fees, and marketing, among other requirements. These laws
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may change, or the agencies charged with overseeing these laws may issue future guidance on the interpretation of these laws that is new, unforeseen, or otherwise conflicts with our current practices. Violations of these state lease-purchase laws can result in material penalties. We are unable to predict the nature or effect on our operations or earnings of unknown future legislation, regulations, agency interpretations and guidance, or judicial or administrative decisions concerning the laws governing our operations, and there can be no assurance that future laws, regulations, interpretations or decisions will not have a material adverse effect on our operations, earnings or financial condition.

We are also required to be licensed in certain states in order to engage in lease-purchase transactions. While we hold required licenses, such licensing requirements could unexpectedly change which in turn could impact our operations.

Regarding federal law, at the present time, no federal law specifically regulates the core lease-purchase transaction offered by us. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank”) does not regulate leases with terms of less than 90 days. Katapult’s lease-purchase transactions carry terms of, at most, month-to-month, and therefore are less than 90 days, such that the transactions do not fall within the transactions specifically covered by Dodd-Frank. These issues notwithstanding, various aspects of our business are governed by federal laws and regulations. For example, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) oversees business practices that are unfair, deceptive or fraudulent to consumers, including within the lease-purchase industry. As such, we seek to ensure that we comply with FTC rules and regulations relating to our operations and we pursue compliance management practices to do so; however, any violation of such rules or regulations could have a material adverse impact on our operations.

Also, state and federal regulatory authorities, including state attorneys general offices, state agencies such as the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation, and the FTC, are increasingly focused on the consumer financial marketplace and personal property leasing generally. At any time, these agencies could initiate new investigations or otherwise take action that could result in significant adverse changes in the regulatory landscape for the lease-purchase industry in which we operate. We cannot predict whether any state attorneys general, state consumer protection agency, or federal regulatory agency will direct investigations or regulatory initiatives towards us or our industry in the future, or what the impact of any such future action(s) might be.

In the ordinary course of our business, we may process personal or sensitive data. Accordingly, we are, or may become, subject to numerous data privacy and security obligations, including federal, state, local, and foreign laws, regulations, guidance, and industry standards related to data privacy, security, and protection. Such obligations may include, without limitation, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”). In addition, several states within the United States have enacted or proposed data privacy laws. For example, Virginia passed the Consumer Data Protection Act, and Colorado passed the Colorado Privacy Act.

The CCPA is an example of the increasingly stringent and evolving regulatory frameworks related to personal data processing that may increase our compliance obligations and exposure for any noncompliance. The CCPA imposes obligations on covered businesses to provide specific disclosures related to a business’s collecting, using, and disclosing personal data and to respond to certain requests from California residents related to their personal data (for example, requests to know of the business’s personal data processing activities, to delete the individual’s personal data, and to opt out of certain personal data disclosures). Also, the CCPA provides for civil penalties and a private right of action for data breaches which may include an award of statutory damages. In addition, the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), effective January 1, 2023, will expand the CCPA. The CPRA will, among other things, give California residents the ability to limit use of certain sensitive personal data, establish restrictions on personal data retention, expand the types of data breaches that are subject to the CCPA’s private right of action, and establish a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the new law. U.S. federal and state consumer protection laws require us to publish statements that accurately and fairly describe how we handle personal data and choices individuals may have about the way we handle their personal data.

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As a Company, we seek to ensure that all employees act in a legal, ethical and dignified manner and carry out the Company’s business consistent with such standards and consistent with the laws discussed above. See the section titled “Risk Factors” for additional information about the laws and regulations to which we may become subject and about the risks to our business associated with such laws and regulations.

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property and proprietary rights are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements, and other contractual protections, to establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including our proprietary technology, software, know-how, and brand. However, these laws, agreements, and procedures provide only limited protection. As of December 31, 2021, we owned three registered trademarks and two trademark applications in the United States.

Although we take steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will be sufficient or effective to prevent the unauthorized access, use, copying, or the reverse engineering of our technology and other proprietary information, including by third-parties who may use our technology or other proprietary information to develop services that compete with ours.

See the section titled “Risk Factors” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property and proprietary rights.

Available Information

Our principal executive offices are located at Katapult Holdings, Inc., 5204 Tennyson Parkway, Suite 500, Plano, TX 75024, and Katapult’s telephone number is (833) 528-2785. Our website address is www.katapult.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this Annual Report, and the inclusion of our website address in this Annual Report is an inactive textual reference only.

We make available on our website, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We also make available on our website our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, our corporate governance principles, and the charters for the Audit, Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees of our board of directors. The SEC maintains an internet site, www.sec.gov, containing reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making a decision to invest in our securities. The summarized risks described below are not the only risks that we face. The following summarized risks as well as risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, earnings per share, cash flow or the trading price of our common stock. These summarized risks include, among others, the following:

Risks Related to Our Business, Strategy and Growth

A large percentage of our gross originations is concentrated with Wayfair and we may be unable to attract additional merchant partners as well as retain and grow our relationships with our existing merchant partners.
Our success depends on the effective implementation and continued execution of our strategies.
The success of our business is dependent on factors affecting consumer spending that are not under our control.
Unexpected changes caused by macro conditions, such as inflation could cause our proprietary algorithms and decisioning tools used in approving customers to no longer be indicative of customer's ability to perform.
Our estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
We rely on the accuracy of third-party data, and inaccuracies in such data could adversely impact our approval process.
The success and growth of our business depends upon our ability to continuously innovate and develop new products and technologies.
To the extent that we seek to grow through future acquisitions, or other strategic investments or alliances, we may not be able to do so effectively.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

We have substantial indebtedness, which reduce our capability to withstand adverse developments or business conditions.
Our credit facility includes restrictive covenants, which could limit our flexibility and our ability to make distributions.
A change in control as defined by our credit agreement could accelerate our obligation to pay our outstanding indebtedness, and we may not have sufficient liquid assets at that time to repay these amounts.

Financial Risks Related to Our Business

We have a history of operating losses and may not sustain profitability in the future.
Our revenue and operating results may fluctuate, which could result in a decline in our profitability and make it more difficult for us to grow our business.
We rely on card issuers or payment processors which could put us at risk of suspensions or terminations of our registrations.
We have experienced rapid growth, which may be difficult to sustain and which may place significant demands on our operational, administrative, and financial resources.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carry forwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

Risks Related to Our Technology and Our Platform

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Our results depend on more prominent presentation, integration, and support of our platform by our merchants.
Real or perceived software errors, failures, bugs, defects, or outages could have adverse effects.
Any significant disruption in, or errors in, service on our platform or relating to vendors could prevent us from processing transactions on our platform or posting payments and have a material and adverse effect.
Our ability to protect our confidential, proprietary, or sensitive information, including the confidential information of consumers on our platform, may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks, employee or other internal misconduct, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, or similar disruptions.
We may be at risk of identity fraud, which may adversely affect the performance of the lease-to-own transactions facilitated through our platform.

Legal and Compliance Risks

Failure or perceived failure to comply with existing or future laws, regulations, contracts, self-regulatory schemes, standards, and other obligations related to data privacy and security (including security incidents) could harm our business. Compliance or the actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could increase the costs of our products or services, limit their use or adoption, and otherwise negatively affect our operating results and business.
We are subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention and adversely impact our business.
Our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in connection with the audit of our financial statements as of and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, and we may identify additional material weaknesses in the future.
Changes to tax laws or exposure to additional tax liabilities may have a negative impact on our operating results.
We may be subject to legal proceedings from time to time which seek material damages.


Operational Risks Related to Our Business

Failure to effectively manage our costs could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.
Negative publicity about us or our industry could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.
Misconduct and errors by our employees, vendors, and service providers could harm our business and reputation.
The loss of the services of any of our executive officers could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.
Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our working environment and diverted personnel resources and any prolonged effects of the pandemic may adversely impact our operations and employees.


Other Risks

Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
We will continue to incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Common Stock to decline.
The price of our securities may change significantly in the future and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.
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A description of the risks and uncertainties associated with our business is set forth below. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our securities could decline.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry

Risks Related to Our Business, Strategy and Growth

A large percentage of our gross originations is concentrated with a single merchant partner, and the loss of this merchant partner or any other key merchant relationship or partner would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We depend on continued relationships with Wayfair and other key merchant partners. Our top merchant partner, Wayfair, represented approximately 63%, 70% and 60% of our gross origination dollars for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our top ten merchant partners in the aggregate represented approximately 90%, 90%, and 87% of our gross origination dollars for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. There can be no guarantee that these relationships will continue or, if they do continue, that these relationships will continue to be successful. There is a risk that we may lose merchants for a variety of reasons, including a failure to meet key contractual or commercial requirements, or if merchant partners shift to in-house solutions (including providing a service competitive to us) or competitor providers.

The concentration of a significant portion of our business and transaction volume with a single merchant or a limited number of merchants exposes us disproportionately to events, circumstances, or risks such single merchant, such as Wayfair, or other key merchants, such as risk impacting their industry, business and results of operations related to COVID-19, supply chain issues (including availability of raw materials from Russia and Ukraine), consumer spending changes, inflation, access to capital markets, labor shortages or other risks they may be facing with respect to their industry, business or results of operations. For example, supply chain issues due to disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic and inflation have been and could continue to negatively impact our merchant partners. If our key merchant partners, in particular Wayfair, are unable to acquire new customers or retain existing customers or are negatively impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 supply chain disruptions this would impact our results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

The loss of Wayfair as a merchant partner, in particular, would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects. In addition, a material modification in the merchant agreement with Wayfair or a significant merchant partner could affect our results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We also depend on continued relationships with key partners that assist in obtaining and maintaining our relationships with merchants. There is a risk that e-commerce platforms with which we partner (such as Shopify, BigCommerce, WooCommerce, and Magneto) may limit or prevent Katapult from being offered as a payment option at checkout. We also face the risk that our key partners could become competitors of our business.

If Wayfair or another key merchant partner chooses to no longer partner with us or choose to partner with a competitor, this loss would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

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If we are unable to attract additional merchant partners and retain and grow our relationships with our existing merchant partners, our results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Our continued success is dependent on our ability to maintain our relationship with our existing merchant partners and grow our gross originations (which we define as the retail price of the merchandise associated with lease-purchase agreements entered into through the Katapult platform and do not represent revenue earned) from those existing merchant partners through their e-commerce platforms, and also to expand our merchant partner base. Our ability to retain and grow our relationships with merchant partners depends on the willingness of our merchant partners to partner with us. The attractiveness of our platform to merchant partners depends upon, among other things, our brand and reputation, ability to sustain our value proposition to merchant partners for consumer acquisition, the attractiveness to merchant partners of our digital and data-driven platform, the services, products and customer decisioning standards offered by our competitors; and our ability to perform under, and maintain, our merchant partner agreements.

In addition, competition for smaller merchant partners has intensified significantly in recent years, with many such merchant partners simultaneously offering several products and services that compete directly with the products and services offered by us. Having a diversified mix of merchant partners is important to mitigate risk associated with changing consumer spending behavior, economic conditions and other factors that may affect a particular type of retailer. If we fail to retain any of our larger merchant partners or a substantial number of our smaller merchant partners, if we do not acquire new merchant partners, if we do not continually grow our gross originations from our merchant partners, or if we are not able to retain a diverse mix of merchant partners, our results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Our success depends on the effective implementation and continued execution of our strategies.

We are focused on our mission to provide innovative lease financing solutions to non-prime consumers and to enable everyday transactions at the merchant point of sale.

Growth of our business, including through the launch of new product offerings, requires us to invest in or expand our information and technology capabilities, engage and retain experienced management, and otherwise incur additional costs. Our inability to address these concerns or otherwise to achieve targeted results associated with our initiatives could adversely affect our results of operations, or negatively impact our ability to successfully execute future strategies, which may result in an adverse impact on our business and financial results.

The success of our business is dependent on factors affecting consumer spending that are not under our control.

Consumer spending is affected by general economic conditions and other factors including levels of employment, disposable consumer income, prevailing interest rates, consumer debt and availability of credit, costs of fuel, inflation, recession and fears of recession, war and fears of war (including the conflict involving Russia and Ukraine), pandemics (such as COVID-19), inclement weather, tariff policies, tax rates and rate increases, timing of receipt of tax refunds, consumer confidence in future economic conditions and political conditions, and consumer perceptions of personal well-being and security. With respect to availability of credit, our business may be adversely impacted by, among other issues, where other consumer finance companies increase the availability of credit to our target consumer market. Unfavorable changes in factors affecting discretionary spending for non-prime consumers could reduce demand for our products and services resulting in lower revenue and negatively impacting the business and our financial results.

Inflation has recently increased at the fastest pace in nearly 40 years. Food, energy, residential rent, and other costs have increased, reflecting a tight labor market and supply chain issues. In addition to reducing demand for our products, high levels of inflation may unfavorably impact our customers' ability to make the payments they owe us, resulting in increased customer payment delinquencies and lease merchandise write-offs and decreased gross margins.

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Unexpected changes caused by macro conditions, such as inflation could cause our proprietary algorithms and decisioning tools used in approving customers to no longer be indicative of our customer's ability to perform.

We believe our proprietary lease decisioning processes to be a key to the success of our business. The decisioning processes assume behavior and attributes observed for prior customers, among other factors, are indicative of performance by our future customers. Unexpected changes in behavior caused by macro conditions, including, for example, widespread and prolonged supply chain disruptions, the expiration of government stimulus payments and/or the significant increase in inflation in the U.S. which has reached levels not seen in 40 years, the U.S. economy experiencing a prolonged recession and/or job losses or increased job absenteeism for hourly employees who are our customers, related to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in customer behavior relating thereto, may lead to increased incidence and costs related to impairment of property held for lease. Due to the nature and novelty of the crisis, and levels of inflation not experienced in decades, our decisioning process will likely require frequent adjustments and the application of greater management judgment in the interpretation and adjustment of the results produced by our decisioning tools. These decisioning tools may be unable to accurately predict and respond to the impact of a prolonged economic downturn or changes to customer behaviors, which in turn may limit the ability of our business to manage risk, avoid charge-offs and may result in insufficient reserves.

If we fail to maintain customer satisfaction and trust in our brand, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

We provide an additional option for consumers seeking to purchase durable goods from e-commerce merchant partners. If consumers do not trust our brand or do not have a positive experience, they will not use our products and services and be unable to attract or retain merchant partners. In addition, our ability to attract new consumers and merchant partners is highly dependent on our reputation and on positive recommendations from our existing customers and merchant partners. Any failure to maintain a consistently high level of customer service, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality customer service, would adversely affect our reputation and the number of positive customer referrals that we receive and the number of new and repeat customers. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

If we are unable to attract new consumers and retain and grow our relationships with our existing consumers, our results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Our continued success depends on our ability to generate repeat use and increased gross originations from existing customers and to attract new consumers to our platform. Our ability to retain and grow our relationships with our consumers depends on the willingness of consumers to use our products and services. The attractiveness of our data-driven platform to consumers depends upon, among other things, the number and variety of our merchant partners and the mix of products and services available through our platform, our brand and reputation, customer experience and satisfaction, trust and perception of the value we provide, technological innovation, and the services, products and customer decisioning standards offered by our competitors. If we fail to retain our relationship with existing customers, if we do not attract new consumers to our platform, products and services, or if we do not continually expand usage, repeat customers and gross originations, our results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

We operate in a highly competitive industry, and their inability to compete successfully would materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and prospects.

We operate in a highly competitive industry. We face competition from a variety of businesses and new market entrants, including competitors with lease-to-own products for e-commerce goods and other types of digital payment platforms. We face competition from virtual lease-to-own companies, e-commerce retailers (including those that offer layaway programs and title or installment lending), online sellers of used merchandise, and various types of consumer finance companies that may enable our customers to shop at online retailers, as well as with online rental stores that do not offer their customers a purchase option. These competitors may have significantly greater financial and operating resources, greater name recognition and more developed products and services,
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which may allow them to grow faster. Greater name recognition, or better public perception of a competitor’s reputation, may help the competitor divert market share. Some competitors may be willing to offer competing products on an unprofitable basis (or may have looser decisioning standards or be willing to relax their decisioning standards) in an effort to gain market share, which could compel us to match their pricing strategy or lose business. Moreover, prime lenders may loosen their underwriting standards and provide credit to non-prime consumers, which would impact the credit quality of our customers and our business and results of operations. In addition, some of our competitors may be willing to lease certain types of products that we will not agree to lease, enter into customer leases that have services, as opposed to goods, as a significant portion of the lease value, or engage in other practices related to pricing, compliance, and other areas that we will not, in an effort to gain market share at our expense. Our business relies heavily on relationships with our merchant partners. An increase in competition could cause our merchant partners to no longer offer our product and services in favor of our competitors, or to offer our product and the products of our competitors simultaneously, which could slow growth in our business and limit or reduce profitability. Merchant partners could also develop their own in house product that competes with our product. Furthermore, virtual lease to own competitors may deploy different business models, such as direct-to-consumer strategies, that forego reliance on merchant partner relationships that may prove to be more successful.

Our estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Our market opportunity estimates, including the size of the virtual lease to own market, and expectations about market growth are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. Even if the markets in which we compete meet our size estimates and growth expectations, our business could fail to grow for a variety of reasons, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

We rely on the accuracy of third-party data, and inaccuracies in such data could adversely impact our approval process.

We use data from third parties as part of our proprietary risk model used to assess whether a consumer qualifies for a lease purchase option from a merchant. We are reliant on these third parties to ensure that the data they provide is accurate. Inaccurate data could cause us to not approve transactions that otherwise would have been approved, or instead, approve transactions that would have otherwise been denied and may lead to a higher incidence of bad debts and could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

The success and growth of our business depends upon our ability to continuously innovate and develop new products and technologies.

Our solution is a technology-driven platform that relies on innovation to remain competitive. The process of developing new technologies and products is complex, and we build our own technology, using the latest in artificial intelligence and machine learning (“AI/ML”), cloud-based technologies, and other tools to differentiate our products and technologies. In addition, our dedication to incorporating technological advancements into our platform requires significant financial and personnel resources and talent. Our development efforts with respect to these initiatives could distract management from current operations and could divert capital and other resources from other growth initiatives important to our business. We operate in an industry experiencing rapid technological change and frequent product introductions. We may not be able to make technological improvements as quickly as demanded by our consumers and merchants, which could harm our ability to attract consumers and merchants. In addition, we may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services as quickly as competitors or be successful in marketing these products and services to consumers and merchants. If we are unable to successfully and timely innovate and continue to deliver a superior merchant and consumer experience, the demand for our products and technologies may decrease and our growth, business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

Further, we use AI/ML in many aspects of our business, including fraud, credit risk analysis, and product personalization. The AI/ML models that we use are trained using various data sets. If the AI/ML models are
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incorrectly designed, the data we use to train them is incomplete, inadequate, or biased in some way, or we do not have sufficient rights to use the data on which our AI/ML models rely, the performance of our products, services, and business, as well as our reputation, could suffer or we could incur liability through the violation of laws, third-party privacy, or other rights, or contracts to which we are a party.

Our failure to accurately predict the demand or growth of our new products and technologies also could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects. New products and technologies are inherently risky, due to, among other things, risks associated with: the product or technology not working, or not working as expected; consumer and merchant acceptance; technological outages or failures; and the failure to meet consumer and merchant expectations. As a result of these risks, we could experience increased claims, reputational damage, or other adverse effects, which could be material. The profile of potential consumers using our new products and technologies also may not be as attractive as the profile of the consumers that we currently serve, which may lead to higher levels of delinquencies or defaults than we have historically experienced. Additionally, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to develop, commercially market, and achieve acceptance of our new products and technologies. In addition, our investment of resources to develop new products and technologies and make changes or updates to our platform may either be insufficient or result in expenses that exceed the revenue actually generated from these new products. Failure to accurately predict demand or growth with respect to our new products and technologies could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

To the extent that we seek to grow through future acquisitions, or other strategic investments or alliances, we may not be able to do so effectively.

We may in the future seek to grow our business by exploring potential acquisitions or other strategic investments or alliances. We may not be successful in identifying businesses or opportunities that meet our acquisition or expansion criteria. In addition, even if a potential acquisition target or other strategic investment is identified, we may not be successful in completing such acquisition or integrating such new business or other investment. We may face significant competition for acquisition and other strategic investment opportunities from other well-capitalized companies, many of which have greater financial resources and greater access to debt and equity capital to secure and complete acquisitions or other strategic investments, than we do. As a result of such competition, we may be unable to acquire certain assets or businesses, or take advantage of other strategic investment opportunities that we deem attractive; the purchase price for a given strategic opportunity may be significantly elevated; or certain other terms or circumstances may be substantially more onerous.

Any delay or failure on our part to identify, negotiate, finance on favorable terms, consummate, and integrate any such acquisition or other strategic investment opportunity could impede our growth. Additional risks relating to potential acquisitions include difficulties in integrating the operations, systems, technologies, products and personnel of the acquired businesses, diversion of management’s attention from normal daily operations of the business and the challenges of managing larger and more widespread operations, the potential loss of key employees, vendors and other business partners of the businesses we acquire; and increased amounts of debt incurred in connection with such activities or dilutive issuances of our common stock.

There is no assurance that we will be able to manage our expanding operations effectively or that we will be able to continue to grow, and any failure to do so could adversely affect our ability to generate revenue and control our expenses. Furthermore, we may be responsible for any legacy liabilities of businesses we acquire or be subject to additional liability in connection with other strategic investments. The existence or amount of these liabilities may not be known at the time of acquisition, or other strategic investment, and may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

We have substantial indebtedness, which reduce our capability to withstand adverse developments or business conditions.

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We have incurred substantial indebtedness, and as of December 31, 2021, the total aggregate indebtedness under the senior secured term loan and revolving loan facility, (the "credit facility") of Katapult SPV-1 LLC (the "Borrower") was approximately $113.6 million of principal outstanding. We, together with our wholly-owned subsidiary, Katapult Group, Inc., have guaranteed the obligations of the Borrower under the credit facility. Our payments on our outstanding indebtedness are significant in relation to our revenue and cash flow, which exposes us to significant risk in the event of downturns in our business (whether through competitive pressures or otherwise), our industry or the economy generally, since our cash flows would decrease but our required payments under our indebtedness would not. Economic downturns may impact our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions in our credit agreement governing the credit facility and may impact our ability to pay or refinance our indebtedness as it comes due, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our overall leverage and the terms of our credit facility could also:

make it more difficult for us to satisfy obligations;
limit our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures or acquisitions;
limit our ability to refinance our indebtedness on terms acceptable to us or at all;
limit our ability to adapt to changing market conditions;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions or cause us to make non-strategic divestitures;
require us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to paying the principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby limiting the availability of our cash flow to fund future capital expenditures, working capital and other corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and in our industry generally; and
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared with competitors that have a less significant debt burden.

In addition, the credit facility, secured by a pledge over all of the assets of the Borrower is guaranteed by us and our wholly-owned subsidiary, Katapult Group, Inc., which in turn is secured by a pledge over all of our assets and the assets of Katapult Group, Inc.

The credit agreement governing our senior secured term loan and revolving loan facility includes restrictive covenants and financial maintenance covenants, which could restrict our operations or ability to pursue our growth strategies or initiatives. Failure to comply with these covenants could result in an acceleration of repayment of the indebtedness under the credit facility, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The credit agreement governing our senior secured term loan and revolving loan facility contains customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants that restrict some of our activities. The negative covenants limit our ability to: incur additional indebtedness; pay dividends, redeem stock or make other distributions; amend our material agreements; make investments; create liens; transfer or sell the collateral for the credit facility; make negative pledges; consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and enter into certain transactions with affiliates. Non-scheduled repayments of certain amounts under our credit facility are subject to prepayment penalties, which would limit our ability to pay or refinance our credit facility. Our ability to meet these covenants could be affected by events beyond our control, and we may be unable to satisfy them which would prevent us from pursuing certain growth strategies or initiatives due to this limitation. These or other limitations could decrease our operating flexibility and our ability to achieve our operating objectives.

The credit agreement governing our credit facility also requires us to maintain the following financial covenants:

Minimum Trailing Twelve Month Adjusted EBITDA: As of the end of each fiscal month, the TTM Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) must not be less than (i) during the period on and after October 1, 2021 and until (and including) June 30, 2023, ($15,000,000), (ii) during the period on and after July 1, 2023 and until (and including) December 31, 2023, $0.00, and (iii) at all times thereafter, $20,000,000.
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Minimum Tangible Net Worth: As of the end of each fiscal month, the Tangible Net Worth (as defined in the credit agreement) of Katapult Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries, on a consolidated basis, must be greater than or equal to the sum of (i) $(18,500,000) plus (ii) the greater of (A) zero dollars and (B) fifty percent of all aggregate Parent Consolidated Net Income (as defined in the credit agreement) since April 30, 2019 (as determined in accordance with GAAP.

Minimum Liquidity: As of any date of determination, Katapult Holdings, Inc. must not permit Liquidity (as defined in the credit agreement) to be less than $50 million of cash and cash equivalents on hand.

Compliance with Total Advance Rate: At the end of each fiscal month and as of the making of any advance under the credit agreement, the Total Advance Rate (as defined in the credit agreement) must not exceed (i) from the period on or after October 1, 2021 to and including December 31, 2022, 140%, (ii) from January 1, 2023 to and including December 31, 2023, 130% and (iii) at all times thereafter, 120%. If at any time during which a Total Advance Rate Reserve Account is in place (as defined in the credit agreement), the Total Advance Rate exceeds the applicable rate for any of the foregoing periods, the borrower may cure such Default (as defined in the credit agreement) by depositing funds in the Total Advance Rate Reserve Account in an amount necessary to reduce the Total Advance Rate to the maximum permitted rate for such period; provided that borrower's right to cure a Default may be exercised no more than a total of five (5) times. On March 14, 2022, the borrower, Katapult Holdings, and Katapult Group, Inc. entered into the thirteenth amendment to the credit agreement to amend the number of times the borrower can cure a default with respect to compliance with the Total Advance Rate covenant from two to five. As of the date of this report, the borrower has exercised its right to cure such a default two times.

Failure to comply with any of these covenants or other obligation or agreement under the credit agreement that is not cured within the specified period under the credit agreement would result in an event of default under the agreement. In such event, if we are unable to negotiate with our lenders for a waiver or dispensation under the agreement, we would not be able to borrow under the credit agreement and our lenders would have the right to terminate the loan commitments under the credit agreement and accelerate repayment of all obligations under the credit agreement that would become due and payable immediately, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. If we do not have sufficient liquid assets to repay amounts outstanding under the credit facility, the lenders have the right to foreclose their liens against all of our assets and take possession and sell any such assets to reduce any such obligations.

Our ability to timely raise capital in the future may be limited, or may be unavailable on acceptable terms, if at all.

The failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. Debt or equity issued to raise additional capital may reduce the value of our common stock. We cannot be certain when or if the operations of our business will generate sufficient cash to fund our ongoing operations or the growth of our business. We intend to make investments to support and grow our business and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop or enhance our technology, expand our sales and marketing efforts or develop new products. Additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to invest in future growth opportunities, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. If we incur additional debt, the debt holders could have rights senior to holders of our common stock and/or existing debt to make claims on our assets. The terms of any additional debt could restrict our operations, including our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. If we issue additional equity securities, stockholders will experience dilution, and the new equity securities could have rights senior to those of our common stock. Because the decision to issue securities in the future offering will depend on numerous considerations, including factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future issuances of debt or equity securities. As a result, stockholders will bear the risk of future issuances of debt or equity securities reducing the value of their common stock and diluting their interest.

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A change in control as defined by our credit agreement could accelerate our obligation to pay our outstanding indebtedness, and we may not have sufficient liquid assets at that time to repay these amounts.

Under our credit facility, all of the outstanding loans are required to be prepaid in full (together with accrued and unpaid interest and prepayment premium) and the revolving loan commitment will terminate if a Change of Control (as defined in the credit agreement) occurs that is not approved by the lenders’ administrative agent under the credit agreement. A Change of Control includes the occurrence of the following: (i) any “person” or “group” (as such terms are used in Sections 13(d) and 14(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, but excluding any employee benefit plan of such person or its subsidiaries, and any person or entity acting in its capacity as trustee, agent or other fiduciary or administrator of any such plan) becomes the “beneficial owner” (as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except that a person or group shall be deemed to have “beneficial ownership” of all securities that such person or group has the right to acquire (such right, an “option right”), whether such right is exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time), directly or indirectly, of 35% or more of the equity securities of Katapult Holdings, Inc. entitled to vote for members of the board of directors (on a fully-diluted basis (and taking into account all such securities that such person or group has the right to acquire pursuant to any option right), and (ii) certain changes in the composition of our board of directors occurs during a twenty-four month period which were not recommended or approved by at least a majority of directors who were directors at the beginning of such twenty-four month period.

As of December 31, 2021, we had $62.0 million of principal outstanding under the revolving portion of our credit facility. In addition, we had borrowings under our term loan of $51.7 million as of December 31, 2021.

If any specified change in control occurs and the lenders accelerate these obligations, we may not have sufficient liquid assets to repay amounts outstanding under this agreement.

The phase-out, replacement or unavailability of LIBOR and/or other interest rate benchmarks could adversely affect our indebtedness.

The interest rates applicable to our existing credit facility are based on, and the interest rates applicable to certain debt obligations we may incur in the future may be based on, a fluctuating rate of interest determined by reference to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). In July 2017, the U.K.’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. In November 2020, the FCA announced that it would continue to publish LIBOR rates through June 30, 2023 for all US dollar settings except the 1 week and the 2-month U.S. Dollar settings. In response to concerns regarding the future of LIBOR, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York convened the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (the “ARRC”) to identify alternatives to LIBOR. The ARRC has recommended a benchmark replacement waterfall to assist issuers in continued capital market entry while safeguarding against LIBOR’s discontinuation. The initial steps in the ARRC’s recommended provision reference variations of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), calculated using short-term repurchase agreements backed by Treasury securities. At this time, it is not possible to predict whether SOFR will attain market traction as a LIBOR replacement. Additionally, it is uncertain if LIBOR will cease to exist after calendar year 2023, or whether additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted, or whether alternative reference rates will gain market acceptance as a replacement for LIBOR.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to reach any agreement on a replacement benchmark, and there can be no assurance that any agreement we reach will result in effective interest rates at least as favorable to us as our current effective interest rates. The failure to reach an agreement on a replacement benchmark, or the failure to reach an agreement that results in an effective interest rate at least as favorable to us as our current effective interest rates, could result in a significant increase in our debt service obligations, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the overall financing market may be disrupted as a result of the phase-out or replacement of LIBOR, which could have an adverse impact on our ability to refinance, reprice or amend our credit facility or incur additional indebtedness, on favorable terms or at all.

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Financial Risks Related to Our Business

We have a history of operating losses and may not sustain profitability in the future.

We generated net income of approximately $21.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 and net income of approximately $22.5 million in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. We incurred a net loss of approximately $18.8 million in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2021, our accumulated deficit was approximately $36.8 million. We anticipate that our operating expenses will increase in the foreseeable future as we seek to continue to grow our business, attract consumers, merchants, and funding sources, and further enhance and develop our products and platform. As we expand our offerings to additional markets, our offerings in these markets may be less profitable than the markets in which we currently operate. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. We may incur net losses in the future and may not maintain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Our revenue and operating results may fluctuate, which could result in a decline in our profitability and make it more difficult for us to grow our business.

Our revenue and operating results may vary from quarter to quarter and by season. Periods of decline could result in an overall decline in profitability and make it more difficult for us to make payments on our indebtedness and grow our business. We expect our quarterly results to fluctuate in the future due to a number of factors, including general economic conditions in the markets where we operate, the cyclical nature of consumer spending, and seasonal sales and spending patterns of customers.

We rely on card issuers or payment processors. If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of Visa or other payment processors, those payment processors could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We rely on card issuers or payment processors, and must pay a fee for this service. From time to time, payment processors such as Visa may increase the interchange fees that they charge for each transaction using one of their cards. The payment processors routinely update and modify their requirements. Changes in the requirements, including changes to risk management and collateral requirements, may impact our ongoing cost of doing business and we may not, in every circumstance, be able to pass through such costs to our merchants or associated participants. Furthermore, if we do not comply with the payment processors’ requirements (e.g., their rules, bylaws, and charter documentation), the payment processors could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations that allow us to process transactions on their networks. The termination of our registration due to failure to comply with the applicable requirements of Visa or other payment processors, or any changes in the payment processors’ rules that would impair our registration, could require us to stop utilizing payment services from Visa or other payment processors, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We have experienced rapid growth, which may be difficult to sustain and which may place significant demands on our operational, administrative, and financial resources. Raising additional funds to sustain our growth by issuing securities may cause dilution to existing stockholders and raising funds through lending arrangements may restrict our operations.

Since inception we have experienced significant transaction volume and revenue growth. Our revenue has increased year-over-year since 2018. We have a relatively limited operating history at our current scale, and our growth in recent periods exposes us to increased risks, uncertainties, expenses, and difficulties. If we are unable to maintain at least our current level of operations using cash flow, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

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If in the future we need to raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our existing stockholders’ ownership will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, or declaring dividends.

Any debt financing we enter into may involve covenants that restrict our operations. These restrictive covenants may include limitations on additional borrowing and specific restrictions on the use of our assets as well as prohibitions on our ability to create liens, pay dividends, redeem our stock, or make investments. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, it could affect the results of our operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carry forwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change", generally defined as a greater than 50.0% change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income may be limited. The completion of the Business Combination may trigger an “ownership change” limitation. We have not completed a formal study to determine if any “ownership changes” within the meaning of IRC Section 382 have occurred. If “ownership changes” within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code have occurred, and if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax credits generated since inception to offset U.S. federal taxable income may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us and could require us to pay U.S. federal income taxes earlier than would be required if such limitations were not in effect. Similar rules and limitations may apply for state income tax purposes.

Risks Relating to Our Technology and Our Platform

Our results depend on more prominent presentation, integration, and support of our platform by our merchants.

We depend on our merchants, which generally accept most major credit cards and other forms of payment, to present our platform as a payment option and to integrate our platform into their website or in their store, such as by prominently featuring our platform on their websites or in their stores and not just as an option at website checkout. We do not have any recourse against merchants when they do not prominently present our platform as a payment option. The failure by our merchants to effectively present, integrate, and support our platform, or to effectively explain lease-to-own transactions to potential customers, would have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Real or perceived software errors, failures, bugs, defects, or outages could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our platform and our internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our platform and our internal systems depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process, and manage immense amounts of data. As a result, undetected errors, failures, bugs, or defects may be present in such software or occur in the future in such software, including open source software and other software we license in from third parties, especially when updates or new products or services are released.

Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs, or defects in the software may not be found until our consumers use our platform and could result in outages or degraded quality of service on our platform that could adversely impact our business (including through causing us not to meet contractually required service levels), as well as negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and services, and harm to our brand or weakening of our competitive position. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, to expend significant additional resources in order to correct the problem. Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs, or defects in the software we rely on could also subject us to liability claims, impair our ability to attract new
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consumers, retain existing consumers, or expand their use of our products and services, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We are subject to stringent and changing obligations related to data privacy and security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers; and other adverse business consequences.

In the ordinary course of business, we collect, receive, store, process, generate, use, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect, secure, dispose of, transmit, and share (collectively, “processing”) personal data and other sensitive information, including proprietary and confidential business data, trade secrets, intellectual property, and sensitive third-party data. For example, we process the personal data of consumers, including Social Security Numbers. Our data processing activities subject us to numerous data privacy and security obligations, such as various laws, regulations, guidance, industry standards, external and internal privacy and security policies, contracts, and other obligations that govern the processing of personal data by us and on our behalf.

In the United States, federal, state, and local governments have enacted numerous data privacy and security laws, including data breach notification laws, personal data privacy laws, and consumer protection laws. For example, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) imposes specific requirements relating to marketing to individuals using technology such as telephones, mobile devices, and text messages. TCPA violations can result in significant financial penalties, including penalties or criminal fines imposed by the Federal Communications Commission or fines of up to $1,500 per violation imposed through private litigation or by state authorities. Class action suits are the most common method for private enforcement.

Additionally, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”) imposes obligations on covered businesses. These obligations include, but are not limited to, providing specific disclosures in privacy notices and affording California residents certain rights related to their personal data. The CCPA allows for statutory fines for noncompliance (up to $7,500 per violation) and includes a private right of action for certain data breaches. In addition, it is anticipated that the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), effective January 1, 2023, will expand the CCPA. Additionally, the CPRA establishes a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the CPRA, which could increase the risk of enforcement. Other states have enacted data privacy laws. For example, Virginia passed the Consumer Data Protection Act, and Colorado passed the Colorado Privacy Act, both of which become effective in 2023. Several states and localities have also enacted measures related to the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in products and services. In addition, data privacy and security laws have been proposed at the federal, state, and local levels in recent years, which could further complicate compliance efforts.

In addition, privacy advocates and industry groups have proposed, and may propose, standards with which we are legally or contractually bound to comply. For example, we may also be subject to the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”). The PCI DSS requires companies to adopt certain measures to ensure the security of cardholder information, including using and maintaining firewalls, adopting proper password protections for certain devices and software, and restricting data access. Noncompliance with PCI-DSS can result in penalties ranging from $5,000 to $100,000 per month by credit card companies, litigation, damage to our reputation, and revenue losses. We may also rely on vendors to process payment card data, and those vendors may be subject to PCI DSS, and our business may be negatively affected if our vendors are fined or suffer other consequences as a result of PCI DSS noncompliance.

Increasingly, some aspects of our business may be reliant on our ability to have our products and services be accepted by or compatible with a third-party platform, and any inability to do so could negatively impact our business. For example, Google has announced that it intends to phase out third-party cookies in its Chrome browser, which could make it more difficult for us to target advertisements. Individuals may increasingly resist our collecting, using, and sharing of personal data to deliver targeted advertising. Individuals are becoming more aware of options related to consent, “do not track” mechanisms, and “ad-blocking” software, any of which could materially impact our ability to collect personal data and deliver relevant promotions or media. As a result, we may be required to change the way we market our products. Any of these developments could impair our ability to reach new or existing customers or otherwise negatively affect our operations. In addition, the CCPA grants California residents
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the right to opt-out of a company’s sharing of personally identifiable information for advertising purposes in exchange for money or other valuable consideration.

Our obligations related to data privacy and security are quickly changing in an increasingly stringent fashion, creating some uncertainty as to the effective future legal framework. Additionally, these obligations may be subject to differing applications and interpretations, which may be inconsistent or conflict among jurisdictions. Preparing for and complying with these obligations requires significant resources and may necessitate changes to our information technologies, systems, and practices and to those of any third parties that process personal data on our behalf. In addition, these obligations may require us to change our business model. Our business model materially depends on our ability to process personal data, so we are particularly exposed to the risks associated with the rapidly changing legal landscape. For example, we may be at heightened risk of regulatory scrutiny, and any changes in the regulatory framework could require us to fundamentally change our business model.

Although we endeavor to comply with all applicable data privacy and security obligations, we may at times fail (or be perceived to have failed) to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, our personnel or third parties upon whom we rely may fail to comply with such obligations, which could negatively impact our business operations and compliance posture. For example, any failure by a third-party processor to comply with applicable law, regulations, or contractual obligations could result in adverse effects, including inability to or interruption in our ability to operate our business and proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. If we fail, or are perceived to have failed, to address or comply with data privacy and security obligations, we could face significant consequences. These consequences may include, but are not limited to, government enforcement actions (e.g., investigations, fines, penalties, audits, inspections, and similar); litigation (including class-related claims); additional reporting requirements and/or oversight; bans on processing personal data; and orders to destroy or not use personal data.

Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, or financial condition, including but not limited to: loss of customers; interruptions or stoppages in our business operations; interruptions or stoppages of data collection needed to train our algorithms; inability to process personal data or to operate in certain jurisdictions; limited ability to develop or commercialize our products; expenditure of time and resources to defend any claim or inquiry; adverse publicity; or revision or restructuring of our operations.

Any significant disruption in, or errors in, service on our platform or relating to vendors, including events beyond our control, could prevent us from processing transactions on our platform or posting payments and have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We use vendors, such as our cloud computing web services provider, virtual card processing companies, and third-party software providers, in the operation of our platform. The satisfactory performance, reliability, and availability of our technology and our underlying network and infrastructure are critical to our operations and reputation and the ability of our platform to attract new and retain existing merchants and consumers. We rely on these vendors to protect their systems and facilities against damage or service interruptions from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, air quality issues, environmental conditions, computer viruses or attempts to harm these systems, criminal acts, and similar events. If our arrangement with a vendor is terminated or if there is a lapse of service or damage to its systems or facilities, we could experience interruptions in our ability to operate our platform. We also may experience increased costs and difficulties in replacing that vendor and replacement services may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, on a timely basis, or at all. Any interruptions or delays in our platform availability, whether as a result of a failure to perform on the part of a vendor, any damage to one of our vendor’s systems or facilities, the termination of any of our third-party vendor agreements, software failures, our or our vendor’s error, natural disasters, terrorism, other man-made problems, security breaches, whether accidental or willful, or other factors, could harm our relationships with our merchants and consumers and also harm our reputation.

In addition, we source certain information from third parties. For example, our risk scoring model is based on algorithms that evaluate a number of factors and currently depend on sourcing certain information from third parties. In the event that any third-party from which we source information experiences a service disruption, whether as a result of maintenance, natural disasters, terrorism, or security breaches, whether accidental or willful, or other factors, the ability to score and decision lease-to-own applications through our platform may be adversely impacted. Additionally, there may be errors contained in the information provided by third parties. This may result in the
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inability to approve otherwise qualified applicants through our platform, which may adversely impact our business by negatively impacting our reputation and reducing our transaction volume.

To the extent we use or are dependent on any particular third-party data, technology, or software, we may also be harmed if such data, technology, or software becomes non-compliant with existing regulations or industry standards, becomes subject to third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation, or other violation, or malfunctions or functions in a way we did not anticipate. Any loss of the right to use any of this data, technology, or software could result in delays in the provisioning of our products and services until equivalent or replacement data, technology, or software is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained, and integrated, and there is no guarantee that we would be successful in developing, identifying, obtaining, or integrating equivalent or similar data, technology, or software, which could result in the loss or limiting of our products, services, or features available in our products or services.

In addition, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses that we may incur. Our disaster recovery plan has not been tested under actual disaster conditions, and we may not have sufficient capacity to recover all data and services in the event of an outage. These factors could prevent us from processing transactions or posting payments on our platform, damage our brand and reputation, divert the attention of our employees, reduce our revenue, subject us to liability, and cause consumers or merchants to abandon our platform, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

If our information technology systems or data, or those of third parties upon which we rely, are or were compromised, we could experience adverse consequences resulting from such compromise, including but not limited to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers; and other adverse consequences.

In the ordinary course of our business, we may collect, store, use, disclose, process, transfer, receive, generate, make accessible, protect, secure, dispose of, transmit and share (collectively, “processing”) proprietary, confidential and sensitive data, including personally identifiable information, intellectual property, and trade secrets (collectively, “sensitive information”). We may rely upon third-party service providers and technologies to operate critical business systems to process sensitive information in a variety of contexts, including, without limitation, third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure, virtual card processing, encryption and authentication technology, employee email, and other functions. We may share or receive sensitive information with or from third parties. Our ability to monitor these third parties’ information security practices is limited, and these third parties may not have adequate information security measures in place.

Cyberattacks, malicious internet-based activity, and online and offline fraud are prevalent and continue to increase. These threats are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. These threats come from a variety of sources, including traditional computer “hackers,” threat actors, personnel (such as through theft or misuse), sophisticated nation states, and nation-state-supported actors. The automated nature of our business and our reliance on digital technologies may make us an attractive target for, and potentially vulnerable to cyber-attacks. We and the third parties upon which we rely may be subject to a variety of evolving threats, including but not limited to: computer malware (including as a result of advanced persistent threat intrusions), malicious code (such as viruses and worms), social engineering (including phishing attacks), ransomware attacks, denial-of-service attacks (such as credential stuffing), personnel misconduct or error, supply-chain attacks, software bugs, server malfunctions, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other information technology assets, adware, telecommunication failures, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other similar threats.

Ransomware attacks, including by organized criminal threat actors, nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors, are becoming increasingly prevalent and severe and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, loss of data and income, reputational harm, and diversion of funds. Extortion payments may alleviate the negative impact of a ransomware attack, but we may be unwilling or unable to make such payments due to, for example, applicable laws or regulations prohibiting such payments. Similarly, supply-chain attacks have increased in frequency and severity, and we cannot guarantee that third parties and infrastructure in our supply chain or our third-
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party partners’ supply chains have not been compromised or that they do not contain exploitable defects or bugs that could result in a breach of or disruption to our information technology systems (including our products or services) or the third-party information technology systems that support us and our services. We are incorporated into the supply chain of a large number of companies worldwide and, as a result, if our products are compromised, a significant number of companies could be simultaneously affected. The potential liability and associated consequences we could suffer as a result of such a large-scale event could be catastrophic and result in irreparable harm.

The COVID-19 pandemic and our remote workforce poses increased risks to our information technology systems and data, as more of our employees work from home, utilizing network connections outside our premises. Additionally, future or past business transactions (such as acquisitions or integrations) could expose us to additional cybersecurity risks and vulnerabilities, as our systems could be negatively affected by vulnerabilities present in acquired or integrated entities’ systems and technologies. Any of the previously identified or similar threats could cause a security incident or other interruption. A security incident or other interruption could result in unauthorized, unlawful, or accidental acquisition, modification, destruction, loss, alteration, encryption, disclosure of, or access to our sensitive information. A security incident or other interruption could disrupt our ability (and that of third parties upon whom we rely) to provide our platform, products, or services.

We may expend significant resources or modify our business activities to try to protect against security incidents. Certain data privacy and security obligations may require us to implement and maintain specific security measures, industry-standard or reasonable security measures to protect our information technology systems and sensitive information.

While we have implemented security measures designed to protect against security incidents, there can be no assurance that these measures will be effective. We may be unable in the future to detect vulnerabilities in our information technology systems (including our products) because such threats and techniques change frequently, are often sophisticated in nature, and may not be detected until after a security incident has occurred. Despite our efforts to identify and remediate vulnerabilities, if any, in our information technology systems (including our products), our efforts may not be successful. Further, we may experience delays in developing and deploying remedial measures designed to address any such identified vulnerabilities.

Any actual or perceived failure to comply with legal and regulatory requirements applicable to us, including those relating to information security, or any failure to protect the information that we collect from our consumers and merchants, including personally identifiable information, from cyber-attacks, or any such actual or perceived failure by our originating bank partners, may result in, among other things, revocation of required licenses or registrations, loss of approved status, private litigation, regulatory or governmental investigations, administrative enforcement actions, sanctions, civil and criminal liability, and constraints on our ability to continue to operate.

Applicable data privacy and security obligations may require us to notify relevant stakeholders of security incidents. Such disclosures are costly, and the disclosure or the failure to comply with such requirements could lead to adverse consequences. If we (or a third party upon whom we rely) experience a security incident or are perceived to have experienced a security incident, we may experience adverse consequences. These consequences may include: interruptions into our operations (including availability of data), litigation (including class claims), an obligation to notify regulators and affected individuals, the triggering of indemnification and other contractual obligations, government enforcement actions (for example, investigations, fines, penalties, audits, and inspections); additional reporting requirements and/or oversight; restrictions on processing sensitive data (including personal data); negative publicity; reputational damage; loss of consumers and ecosystem partners;, monetary fund diversions; financial loss; and other similar harms. Additionally, our originating bank partners also operate in a highly regulated environment, and many laws and regulations that apply directly to our originating bank partners are indirectly applicable to us through our arrangements with our originating bank partners. Our contracts may not contain limitations of liability, and even where they do, there can be no assurance that limitations of liability in our contracts are sufficient to protect us from liabilities, damages, or claims related to our data privacy and security obligations. We cannot be sure that our insurance coverage will be adequate or sufficient to protect us from or to
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mitigate liabilities arising out of our privacy and security practices, that such coverage will continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that such coverage will pay future claims.

While we take precautions to prevent consumer identity fraud, it is possible that identity fraud may still occur or has occurred, which may adversely affect the performance of the lease-to-own transactions facilitated through our platform.

There is risk of fraudulent activity associated with our platform, consumers, and third parties handling consumer information. Our resources, technologies, and fraud prevention tools may be insufficient to accurately detect and prevent fraud. We bear the risk of loss for lease-to-own transactions facilitated through our platform. The level of fraud related charge-offs on the lease-to-own transactions facilitated through our platform could be adversely affected if fraudulent activity were to significantly increase.

We bear the risk of consumer fraud in a transaction involving us, a consumer, and a merchant, and we generally have no recourse to the merchant to collect the amount owed by the consumer. Significant amounts of fraudulent cancellations or chargebacks and the potential cost of remediation could adversely affect our business or financial condition. High profile fraudulent activity or significant increases in fraudulent activity could also lead to regulatory intervention, negative publicity, and the erosion of trust from our consumers and merchants, and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, and cash flows.

Legal and Compliance Risks

Our business is subject to the requirements of various federal, state and local laws and regulations, which can require significant compliance costs and expose us to government investigations, significant additional costs, fines or other monetary penalties or settlements, and compliance-related burdens.

Our business is subject to extensive federal, state and local laws and regulations and an increased risk of regulatory actions as a result of the highly regulated nature of our industry and the focus of state and federal enforcement agencies on the lease-to-own industry in particular. Any adverse change in applicable laws or regulations, the passage of unfavorable new laws or regulations, or the manner in which any applicable laws and regulations are interpreted or enforced could dictate changes to our business practices that may be materially adverse to the Company. Further, our transactions are subject to various federal and state laws and regulations which may result in significant compliance costs as well as expose us to litigation. In particular, our rental-purchase transactions and the consumer-facing operations related thereto, such as collections and marketing, are subject to various other federal, state and/or local consumer protection laws. These laws, as well as the rental-purchase statutes under which we operate, provide various remedies in connection with violations, including restitution and other monetary penalties and sanctions which in certain circumstances can be significant.

We cannot determine with any degree of certainty whether any new laws or regulations will be enacted, or whether government agencies will initiate new or different interpretations of existing laws. The impact of new laws and regulations, or modifications by regulators concerning the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws, on our business is not known; however, any such changes could materially and adversely impact our business.

The laws and regulations applicable to our operations are subject to agency, administrative and/or judicial interpretation. Some of these laws and regulations have been enacted only recently and/or may not yet have been interpreted or may be interpreted infrequently. As a result of non-existent or sparse interpretations, ambiguities in these laws and regulations may create uncertainty with respect to the requirements of any applicable laws and regulations. Any ambiguity under a law or regulation to which we are subject may lead to regulatory investigations, governmental enforcement actions and private causes of action, such as class action lawsuits, with respect to our compliance with such laws or regulations.

Federal and state agencies have increased their focus on consumer financial products and services. State law enforcement agencies and regulators appear to have increased their scrutiny of entities operating within the
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personal property rental-purchase, or “lease-to-own”, industry. For example, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (“DFPI”) has issued subpoenas and is conducting investigations into practices of entities operating within the personal property rental-purchase industry. Similarly, state attorneys general also appear to have increased their scrutiny of the industry. As of the date of this filing, the Company has not received investigatory demands from California DFPI or state attorneys general. However, there can be no assurance that the
Company will not be included in future actions of the same or similar nature and, if it is, that it would not lead to an enforcement action, consent order, or substantial costs, including legal fees, fines, penalties, and remediation expenses.

We are subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention and adversely impact our business.

In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. For example, in August 2021, a putative securities class action complaint was filed against us and certain of our officers. The case is still pending. See Part II, Item 8. Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information. Litigation of this type is expensive and could result in substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. Any adverse determination in litigation could also subject us to significant liabilities.

Our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in connection with the audit of our financial statements as of and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 and we may identify additional material weaknesses in the future that may cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in material misstatements of our financial statements. If we fail to remediate any material weaknesses or if we otherwise fail to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results could be adversely affected.

In connection with the audit of our financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, our independent registered public accounting firm identified certain control deficiencies in the design and implementation of our internal control over financial reporting that in aggregate constituted material weaknesses. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Our evaluation was based on the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013).

The material weaknesses identified during the December 31, 2020 and 2019 audits relate to (i) an insufficient number of personnel with an appropriate level of GAAP knowledge and experience to create the proper control environment for effective internal control over financial reporting and to ensure that oversight processes and procedures in applying nuanced guidance to complex accounting transactions for financial reporting are adequate, (ii) a lack of control in place to perform a review of the depreciation, cost of property sold, and impairment expense curves, specifically associated with evaluating the accuracy and completeness of the underlying data supporting the curves, or reconcile the expense amounts per the curves to the general ledger, (iii) a lack of controls in place to review journal entries, reconcile journal entries to underlying support and evaluate if journal entries are in compliance with GAAP before the entries are manually posted, (iv) an incomplete implementation of the information and communication component of the COSO framework, specifically with respect to user access controls to ensure appropriate segregation of duties and to adequately restrict user and privileged access to its financial applications and data to appropriate company personnel and (v) a lack of controls in place surrounding the accounting of warrants from FinServ. As of December 31, 2021, the material weaknesses identified in (ii), (iv) and (v) above were remediated.

As part of our plan to remediate the remaining material weaknesses, we are performing a full review of our internal control procedures. We have implemented, and plan to continue to implement, new controls and new processes. We cannot assure you that the measures that we have taken, and that will be taken, to remediate these
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material weaknesses will, in fact, remedy the material weaknesses or will be sufficient to prevent future material weaknesses from occurring. We also cannot assure you that we have identified all of our existing material weaknesses.

In light of the control deficiencies and the resulting material weaknesses that were identified, we believe that it is possible that, had we and our independent registered public accounting firm performed an assessment or audit, respectively, of our internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, additional material weaknesses may have been identified.

When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are unable to remediate our existing material weakness or identify additional material weaknesses and are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting once we are no longer an emerging growth company, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

If we discover a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that we are unable to remedy or otherwise fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures, our ability to report our financial results on a timely and accurate basis and the market price of our common stock may be adversely affected.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In addition to the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the audit of our financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, subsequent testing by us or our independent registered public accounting firm, which has not performed an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, may reveal additional deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. To comply with Section 404, we expect to incur substantial cost, expend significant management time on compliance-related issues and hire additional accounting, financial, and internal audit staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results, and cause a decline in the price of our common stock.

Changes to tax laws or exposure to additional tax liabilities may have a negative impact on our operating results.

Continued developments in U.S. tax reform and changes to tax laws and rates in other jurisdictions where we do business could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. It is also possible that provisions of U.S. tax reform could be subsequently amended in a way that is adverse to us.

In addition, we may undergo tax audits in various jurisdictions in which we operate. Although we believe that our income tax provisions and accruals are reasonable and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, and that we prepare our tax filings in accordance with all applicable tax laws, the final determination with respect to any tax audits and any related litigation, could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of a tax audit or litigation could materially affect our operating results and cash flows in the periods for which that determination is made. In addition, future period net income may be adversely impacted by litigation costs, settlements, penalties and interest assessments.

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We are subject to legal proceedings from time to time which seek material damages. The costs we incur in defending ourselves or associated with settling any of these proceedings, as well as a material final judgment or decree against us, could materially adversely affect our financial condition by requiring the payment of the settlement amount, a judgment or the posting of a bond.

We are subject to legal proceedings which seek material damages. For example, in April 2021, Daiwa Corporate Advisory Services filed a complaint against us for breach of contract with respect to transactions in connection with our Merger. In addition, in August 2021, a putative securities class action complaint was filed against us and certain of our officers. These cases are still pending. See “Part II, Item 8. Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information. The costs we incur in defending ourselves or associated with settling any of these proceedings, as well as a material final judgment or decree against us, could materially adversely affect our financial condition by requiring the payment of the settlement amount, a judgment or the posting of a bond.

In addition, others in our industry have defended class action lawsuits alleging various regulatory violations and have paid material amounts to settle such claims. If we are named in any such class action lawsuits or other legal proceedings, significant settlement amounts or final judgments could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and capital resources.

To attempt to limit costly and lengthy consumer, employee and other litigation, including class actions, we require our customers and employees to sign arbitration agreements, including class action waivers. In addition to opt-out provisions contained in such agreements, recent judicial and regulatory actions have attempted to restrict or eliminate the enforceability of such agreements and waivers. If we are not permitted to use arbitration agreements and/or class action waivers, or if the enforceability of such agreements and waivers is restricted or eliminated, we could incur increased costs to resolve legal actions brought by customers, employees and others, as we would be forced to participate in more expensive and lengthy dispute resolution processes.

Operational Risks Related to Our Business

Failure to effectively manage our costs could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.

Certain elements of our cost structure are largely fixed in nature. Consumer spending remains uncertain, which makes it more challenging for us to maintain or increase our operating margins. The competitive environment in our industry and increasing price transparency means that the focus on achieving efficient operations is greater than ever. As a result, we must continuously focus on managing our cost structure. Failure to manage our overall cost of operations, labor and benefit rates, advertising and marketing expenses, operating leases, data costs, payment processing costs, cost of capital, or indirect spending could materially adversely affect our profitability.

Negative publicity about us or our industry could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Negative publicity about us or our industry, including the transparency, fairness, user experience, quality, and reliability of our platform or lease-to-own platforms in general, effectiveness of our risk model, our ability to effectively manage and resolve complaints, our privacy and security practices, litigation, regulatory activity, misconduct by our employees, funding sources, service providers, or others in our industry, the experience of consumers and investors with our platform or services or lease-to-own platforms in general, even if inaccurate, could adversely affect our reputation and the confidence in, and the use of, our platform, which could harm our reputation and cause disruptions to our platform. For instance, in October 2020, a data breach broker purported to offer customer records from a number of companies, including us, for sale on a hacker forum. Although we determined with third party firms and our internal team that the compromised data was limited to non-sensitive information, we cannot guarantee that this publicity or any similar publicity in the future will not have a negative effect on our business or reputation. Any such reputational harm could further affect the behavior of consumers, including their willingness to utilize lease-to-own programs through our platform or to make payments on their leases. As a result,
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our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Misconduct and errors by our employees, vendors, and service providers could harm our business and reputation.

We are exposed to many types of operational risk, including the risk of misconduct and errors by our employees, vendors, and other service providers. Our business depends on our employees, vendors, and service providers to process a large number of increasingly complex transactions, including transactions that involve significant dollar amounts and lease-to-own transactions that involve the use and disclosure of personally identifiable information and business information. We could be adversely affected if transactions were redirected, misappropriated, or otherwise improperly executed, personal and business information was disclosed to unintended recipients, or an operational breakdown or failure in the processing of other transactions occurred, whether as a result of human error, a purposeful sabotage or a fraudulent manipulation of our operations or systems. In addition, the manner in which we store and use certain personal data and interact with consumers and merchants through our platform is governed by various federal and state laws. If any of our employees, vendors, or service providers take, convert, or misuse funds, documents, or data, or fail to follow protocol when interacting with consumers and merchants, we could be liable for damages and subject to regulatory actions and penalties. We could also be perceived to have facilitated or participated in the illegal misappropriation of funds, documents, or data, or the failure to follow protocol, and therefore be subject to civil or criminal liability. For example, our operations are subject to certain laws generally prohibiting companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions. Violations by our employees, contractors or agents of policies and procedures we have implemented to ensure compliance with these laws could subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the U.S. and in other jurisdictions, could lead to substantial civil and criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties, and related shareholder lawsuits, could cause us to incur significant legal fees, and could damage our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct or errors by employees, vendors, or service providers, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses. Any of these occurrences could result in our diminished ability to operate our business, potential liability to consumers and merchants, inability to attract future consumers and merchants, reputational damage, regulatory intervention, and financial harm, which could negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

The loss of the services of any of our executive officers could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

The experience of our executive officers are valuable assets to us. Our executive officers have significant experience in the financial technology industry and would be difficult to replace. Competition for senior executives in our industry is intense, and we may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel to replace or succeed any of our executive officers. Failure to retain any of our executive officers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees.

Our future success depends on our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate, and retain highly qualified personnel for all areas of our organization, in particular, a highly experienced sales force, data scientists, and engineers. Competition for these types of highly skilled employees, is extremely intense. Trained and experienced personnel are in high demand and may be in short supply. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we do and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors that may seek to recruit them. We may not be able to attract, develop, and maintain the skilled workforce necessary to operate our business, and labor expenses may increase as a result of a shortage in the supply of qualified personnel. If we are unable to maintain and build our highly experienced sales force, or are unable to continue to attract experienced engineering and technology personnel, as well as other qualified employees, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our working environment and diverted personnel resources and any prolonged effects of the pandemic may adversely impact our operations and employees.

We have had to expend, and expect to continue to expend, personnel resources to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, including to develop and implement internal policies and procedures and track changes in laws. Any prolonged diversion of personnel resources may have an adverse effect on our operations. Our staff continues to work in a mainly remote environment. Over time such remote operations may decrease the cohesiveness of our teams and our ability to maintain our culture, both of which are critical to our success. Additionally, a remote working environment may impede our ability to undertake new business projects, to foster a creative environment, to hire new team members, and to retain existing team members. Such effects may adversely affect the productivity of our team members and overall operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Additional Risks Relating to Ownership of Company Securities

Nasdaq may delist our securities from trading on its exchange, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.

Currently, our common stock and public warrants are publicly traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market ("Nasdaq"). In order to continue listing our securities on the Nasdaq, we will be required to maintain certain financial, distribution and stock price levels.

If Nasdaq delists our securities from trading on its exchange and we are not able to list our securities on another national securities exchange, we expect our securities could be quoted on an over-the-counter market. If this were to occur, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
reduced liquidity for our securities;
a determination that our common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in our common stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;
a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” Since our common stock and public warrants are listed on the Nasdaq, they are covered securities. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of its securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case. If we are no longer listed on the Nasdaq, our securities would not be covered securities and it would be subject to regulation in each state in which it offers its securities, including in connection with the initial business combination.

The price of our securities may change significantly in the future and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.

The trading price of our common stock and public warrants is likely to be volatile and the trading price of our securities have experienced extreme volatility and a significant decline. The securities markets have experienced significant volatility as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and other factors. Market volatility, as well as general economic, market, or political conditions, could reduce the market price of shares of our common stock regardless of our operating performance. Our operating results have been below and could continue to be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors due to a number of potential factors, including:

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results of operations that vary from the expectations of securities analysts and investors;
results of operations that vary from those of our competitors;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on our business and financial conditions;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates and investment recommendations by securities analysts and investors;
declines in the market prices of stocks generally;
strategic actions by us or our competitors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint ventures, other strategic relationships or capital commitments;
any significant change in our management;
changes in general economic or market conditions or trends in our industry or markets;
changes in business or regulatory conditions, including new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
future sales of our common stock or other securities;
investor perceptions or the investment opportunity associated with our common stock relative to other investment alternatives;
the public’s response to press releases or other public announcements by us or third parties, including our filings with the SEC;
litigation involving us, our industry, or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;
guidance, if any, that we provide to the public, any changes in this guidance or our failure to meet this guidance;
the development and sustainability of an active trading market for our stock;
actions by institutional or activist stockholders;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from natural disasters, war (including the conflict involving Russia and Ukraine), acts of terrorism or responses to these events.

These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our common stock or public warrants is low.

Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.

Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of our management’s time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to our management and growth. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal control over financial reporting required of public companies in the U.S. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the U.S. may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which will increase our operating costs in future periods.

We will continue to incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will continue to devote substantial time for new compliance initiatives.

As a public company, we will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, and these expenses may increase even more after we are no longer an emerging growth company, as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the
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Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Our management and other personnel will need to continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, we expect these rules and regulations to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. The increased costs will impact our financial position. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits or incur substantially higher costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

Because there are no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

We intend to retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and there are no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of our common stock will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and results of operations, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions, implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by its subsidiaries to it and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is limited by covenants of our existing and outstanding indebtedness and may be limited by covenants of any future indebtedness that we incur. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our common stock unless you sell our common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they downgrade our stock or our sector, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We will not control these analysts. In addition, some financial analysts may have limited expertise with our model and operations. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or industry, or the stock of any of our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on it regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause its stock price or trading volume to decline.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our common stock to decline.

The sale of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems appropriate.

The lock-up agreement contained in the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement (the “A&R RRA”) with us expired and the shares of common stock held by the stockholders party to the A&R RRA are eligible for resale which could result in the market price of shares of our common stock dropping significantly if the holders of these shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of our common stock or other securities.

In addition, common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting
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agreements, lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. The aggregate number of shares of our common stock initially reserved for future issuance under our 2021 equity incentive plan was 8,932,162, and as of December 31, 2021, there were 6,470,397 shares of common stock available for future issuance under the 2021 equity incentive plan.

In the future, we may also issue securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The amount of shares of common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of common stock. Any issuance of additional securities in connection with investments or acquisitions may result in additional dilution to our stockholders.

Warrants are exercisable for our common stock, which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our existing stockholders.

Outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 12,832,500 shares of our common stock became exercisable 30 days after the completion of the Merger. Each warrant entitles the holder thereof to purchase one (1) share of our common stock at a price of $11.50 per whole share, subject to adjustment. Warrants may be exercised only for a whole number of shares of common stock. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of our common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the then existing holders of our common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

The JOBS Act permits “emerging growth companies” like us to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, which we refer to as the “JOBS Act.” As such, we will take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies for as long as it continues to be an emerging growth company, including (i) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (ii) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements and (iii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in its periodic reports and proxy statements. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they deem important. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) December 31, 2024, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as we are an emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
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Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.

Certain provisions of our Amended and Restated Charter and Amended and Restated Bylaws have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.

These provisions provide for, among other things:
the ability of our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;
limiting the ability of stockholders to act by written consent; and
our board of directors have the express authority to make, alter or repeal our Amended and Restated Bylaws.

These anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire.

Our Amended and Restated Charter designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or stockholders.

Our Amended and Restated Charter provides that, subject to limited exceptions, any (1) derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (2) action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, stockholder or employee to us or our stockholders, (3) action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our Amended and Restated Charter or our Amended and Restated Bylaws, or (4) action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, another state or federal court located within the State of Delaware. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions of our Amended and Restated Charter described above. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or its directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our Amended and Restated Charter inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.
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Item 2. Properties

Our principal executive office is located in Plano, Texas, which consists of approximately 12,000 square feet under a lease that expires in August 2023, subject to our option to extend the term for two terms of five years each. Our New York, New York office consists of approximately 4,000 square feet of leased office space under a lease that expires in June 2025. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our needs and that existing needs and future growth can be accommodated by leasing alternative or additional space.
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time we may become involved in various legal proceedings. Refer to Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report for a description of current legal proceedings.
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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.
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Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Prior to the closing of the Merger, FinServ’s units, shares of Class A common stock and warrants were publicly traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market (the “Nasdaq”). On June 10, 2021, our common stock and warrants began trading on the Nasdaq under the symbols KPLT and KPLTW, respectively. We no longer have any outstanding units.
Holders of Record

As of March 11, 2022, there were 129 holders of record of our common stock and the closing price of our common stock was $1.90 as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

Dividend Policy

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and has no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

None.

Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act.

The graph below shows the cumulative total stockholder return on our Common Stock with the cumulative total return on the Nasdaq Composite Index and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the market close on June 9, 2021, the date that our Class A common stock commenced trading on the Nasdaq Global Market, in each our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index, and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index. The graph uses the closing market price on June 9, 2021 of $14.52 per share as the initial value of our common stock. The stock price performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future stock price performance.

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kplt-20211231_g2.jpg
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Item 6. [Reserved]


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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. All dollar amounts are in thousands, unless otherwise specified.

Overview

We are an e-commerce focused financial technology company offering e-commerce point-of-sale (“POS”) lease-purchase options for non-prime U.S. consumers. Our fully-digital, next-generation technology platform provides non-prime consumers with a flexible lease purchase option to enable them to obtain durable goods from our network of e-commerce merchants. See the section titled “Business” for further details on our business.

Key events impacting our business are as follows:

COVID-19 — Due to the economic uncertainty that has and may continue to result from the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an added risk factor in the overall future outlook of the Company. We have implemented cost containment and cash management initiatives to mitigate the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and liquidity. Although we experienced positive performance during the onset of the pandemic due to increased customer activity and the resiliency of our business model, our business has been impacted by a number of factors including changes in consumer spending habits, government stimulus, new variants and other potential factors. Management continues to monitor both positive and negative potential business trends as these factors continue throughout 2022.

Key factors and trends impacting our business include the following:

In the first quarter 2021, consumers were bolstered by two stimulus payments, one in January and the other in March, which drove spending and consequently our gross originations volume. These stimulus payments also changed historic 90-day buyout and delinquency patterns during 2020 through the first quarter 2021, with these trends now normalizing to pre-pandemic levels. Recent macro headwinds we have observed since fourth quarter 2021 that are continuing include key merchant partners experiencing lower sales volumes than they did in 2020 and early 2021. In addition, in response to these trends and a deterioration in overall payment ability of our customers, we initiated tightening of our underwriting in fourth quarter 2021 continuing into 2022, which has led to fewer approvals. The combination of these factors is resulting in gross originations trending down significantly year-over-year through February 2022.
Record levels of inflation combined with supply chain issues (including availability of raw materials from Russia and Ukraine) are expected to impact customers ability to make lease payments and impact key merchant partners
We anticipate that the challenging macro environment will continue in 2022 but expect that our largest merchant partners will be able to return to growth in the second half of 2022. We also anticipate that impairment charges will continue to rise back to pre-pandemic levels.
Based on historical trends, if prime lenders that had previously expanded their underwriting due to record low delinquencies in 2020 and early 2021, tighten their underwriting, this would result in potential additional volume and higher credit customers to the Company.


Segment Information

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We conduct our business within one business segment, which is defined as providing lease payment options to consumers for the purchase of durable goods from e-commerce partners. Our operations are aggregated into a single reportable operating segment based upon similar economic and operating characteristics as well as similar markets.

Key Performance Metrics

We regularly review several metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions, which may also be useful to an investor.

Gross Originations

We measure gross originations to assess the growth trajectory and overall size of our lease portfolio. There is a direct correlation between gross origination growth and revenue growth. We define gross originations as the retail price of the merchandise associated with lease-purchase agreements entered into during the period through our platform. Gross originations do not represent revenue earned. However, we believe this is a useful operating metric for both the Company and investors to use in assessing the volume of transactions that take place on our platforms.

The following table presents gross originations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively:

(in thousands)Years ended December 31,2021 - 2020 Change2020 - 2019 Change
202120202019$%$%
Gross Originations$247,964 $236,368 $102,545 $11,596 4.9 %$133,823 130.5 %

Wayfair represented 63%, 70% , and 60% of gross origination during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Gross originations have increased as a result of the addition of new merchant partners, government stimulus, and a continued shift of consumer spending online. The growth of gross originations from customers, excluding Wayfair, year-over-year was 29.9%.

Total Revenue and Bad Debt Recoveries

Total revenue represents the sum of rental revenue, other revenue, and service fees. Bad debt recoveries represent customer payments for receivables that had previously been written off. Bad debt recoveries represent a reduction to bad debt expense in the period in which they are collected. We measure these metrics to assess the total view of paythrough performance of our customers. We believe looking at these components of our consolidated financial statements is useful to an investor as it helps to understand the total payment performance of customers.

The following tables present total revenue and bad debt recoveries for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively:

(in thousands)Years ended December 31,
202120202019
Total revenue$303,113 $247,200 $91,877 
Bad debt recoveries (1)
$6,069 $3,465 $1,499 

(1) Bad debt recoveries represent 21%, 22%, and 16% of total bad debt expense for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

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Gross Profit

Gross profit represents total revenue less cost of revenue, and is a measure presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We also use adjusted gross profit as a key performance indicator to provide an understanding of one aspect of our performance specifically attributable to total revenue and the variable costs associated with total revenue.

Adjusted Gross Profit

Adjusted gross profit represents gross profit less variable operating expenses, which are servicing costs, underwriting fees, and bad debt expense. We believe that adjusted gross profit provides a meaningful understanding of one aspect of our performance specifically attributable to total revenue and the variable costs associated with total revenue. See “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section below for a reconciliation of adjusted gross profit, which is a non-GAAP measure utilized by management, to gross profit.

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

Revenue consists of rental revenue, other revenue and service fees. Rental revenue consists of revenue earned from property held for lease and agreed-upon charges related to lease-purchase agreements. Other revenue consists of sub-lease revenue, revenue from merchant partnerships, and infrequent sales of property formerly on lease when customers terminate a lease and elect to return the property to the Company rather than the Company’s merchant partners. Service fees consists of fees related to leases originated by the Company’s former subsidiary Cognical SPV-4 LLC (which was liquidated in December 2020) on behalf of a third-party merchant which the Company services for a contractually determined fee.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists primarily of depreciation expense related to property held for lease, impairment of property held for lease, net book value of property buyouts, payment processing fees, and other costs associated with offering lease-purchase transactions to customers.

Operating Expenses

Operating expenses consist of servicing costs, underwriting fees, professional and consulting fees, technology and data analytics expense, bad debt expense, compensation costs and general and administrative expense. Servicing costs primarily consist of permanent and temporary call center support. Underwriting fees primarily consist of data costs related to inputs from customer underwriting models. Professional and consulting fees primarily consist of corporate legal and accounting costs. Technology and data analytics expense primarily consist of salaries and benefits for computer programming and data analytics employees that support our underlying technology and proprietary risk model algorithms. Bad debt expense primarily consists of provisions for uncollectible accounts receivable, net of recoveries. Compensation costs consist primarily of payroll and related costs and stock-based compensation. General and administrative expense consists primarily of occupancy costs, travel and entertainment, and other general overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization related to office equipment and software.

Results of Operations

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
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(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,Change
20212020$%
Revenue
Rental revenue$302,794 $246,927 $55,867 22.6 %
Other revenue319 200 119 59.5 %
Service fees— 73 (73)(100.0)%
Total revenue303,113 247,200 55,913 22.6 %
Cost of revenue214,124 167,412 46,712 27.9 %
Gross profit88,989 79,788 9,201 11.5 %
Operating expenses:
Servicing costs4,737 4,077 660 16.2 %
Underwriting fees1,876 2,344 (468)(20.0)%
Professional and consulting fees5,987 2,949 3,038 103.0 %
Technology and data analytics8,196 6,296 1,900 30.2 %
Bad debt expense28,299 16,064 12,235 76.2 %
Compensation costs26,943 6,874 20,069 292.0 %
General and administrative11,294 4,278 7,016 164.0 %
Total operating expenses87,332 42,882 44,450 103.7 %
Income from operations1,657 36,906 (35,249)(95.5)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt— (402)402 (100.0)%
Interest expense and other fees(16,485)(13,588)(2,897)21.3 %
Change in fair value of warrant liability36,573 102 36,471 35755.9 %
Income before provision for income taxes21,745 23,018 (1,273)(5.5)%
Provision for income taxes(539)(487)(52)10.7 %
Net income$21,206 $22,531 $(1,325)(5.9)%

Rental revenue

Rental revenue increased by $55.9 million, or 22.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase in rental revenue was attributed to the addition of new merchant partners on the Katapult platforms. During the period we onboarded 102 new merchant partners. In addition, we experienced a 5% increase in originations, which is a direct result of the increases in e-commerce activity.

Cost of revenue

Cost of revenue increased $46.7 million, or 27.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by various promotions and pricing concessions combined with the increase in rental revenue and origination volume over this period.

Gross profit

Gross profit increased by $9.2 million, or 11.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase in gross profit was primarily due to the addition of new merchant partners and an increase in originations during the period. Gross profit as a percentage of total revenue decreased to 29% for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to 32% for the same period in 2020. This decrease was driven by the normalization of customer payment performance as compared to the 2020 period and various promotions and pricing concession for merchant partners.

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(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,Percentage of Total Revenue
2021202020212020
Total revenue$303,113 $247,200 — — 
Servicing costs4,737 4,077 1.6 %1.6 %
Underwriting fees1,876 2,344 0.6 %0.9 %
Professional and consulting fees5,987 2,949 2.0 %1.2 %
Technology and data analytics8,196 6,296 2.7 %2.5 %
Bad debt expense28,299 16,064 9.3 %6.5 %
Compensation costs26,943 6,874 8.9 %2.8 %
General and administrative11,294 4,278 3.7 %1.7 %

Servicing Costs

Servicing costs increased by $0.7 million, or 16.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This was primarily due an increase in call center headcount to service the increase in originations during the same period and was offset by scalability efficiencies achieved in the latter part of 2020 and throughout 2021.

Underwriting fees

Underwriting fees decreased by $0.5 million, or 20%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This was primarily due to efficiencies achieved during the latter part of 2020 related to the continual refinement of our customer underwriting model and specifically, our ability to favorably renegotiate third party data costs, despite an increase in underwriting activity associated with increased revenue volume over the period.


Professional and consulting fees

Professional and consulting fees increased by $3.0 million, or 103%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by the Merger, which resulted in $1.2 million of non-capitalizable expenses for the year ended December 31, 2021. Further contributing to the increase were an increase in accounting and legal fees in preparation of becoming a public company and consulting fees associated with SOX compliance readiness as compared to 2020.

Technology and data analytics

Technology and data analytics expense increased by $1.9 million, or 30.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This was primarily due to added employee headcount to continue the build-out of the Company’s technological infrastructure and continued improvement of our proprietary risk model algorithms, partially offset by a greater portion of software development activities qualifying for capitalization in 2021.

Bad debt expense

Bad debt expense increased $12.2 million, or 76.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by the increase in our lease base resulting in a larger accounts receivable balance year over year. In addition, delinquencies were at record lows during part of 2020 due primarily to the U.S. government stimulus to individuals for COVID-19 relief.

Compensation costs

Compensation costs increased by $20.1 million or 292% for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase is related to an increase in stock-based compensation for the immediate vesting of restricted stock awards
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upon the Merger, payment of transaction related employee bonuses and added headcount to support our growth trajectory. Stock-based compensation increased $12.7 million from $0.4 million to $13.1 million year over year.

General and administrative

General and administrative expense increased by $7.0 million, or 164%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase is related to an increase in insurance and other related costs as a public company, and increased marketing, advertising expenses, and software related expense.

Interest expense and other fees

Interest expense and other fees increased by $2.9 million, or 21.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This was primarily due to an increase in total outstanding principal balance of indebtedness on our debt facilities during 2021. The principal balances on our indebtedness increased due to increased origination volume combined with borrowings on the term loan facility that we entered into during 2020.

Change in fair value of warrant liability

The change in fair value of warrant liability was $36.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The balance consists of changes in the fair value of the Company’s warrant liability, which decreased due to the decline in the fair value of the public warrants.

Provision for income taxes

Provision for income taxes was $0.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. The provision is related to certain states where accelerated federal tax depreciation is disallowed.

Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
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The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,Change
20202019$%
Revenue
Rental revenue$246,927 $90,996 $155,931 171.4 %
Other revenue200 368 (168)(45.7)%
Service fees73 513 (440)(85.8)%
Total revenue247,200 91,877 155,323 169.1 %
Cost of revenue167,412 71,220 96,192 135.1 %
Gross profit79,788 20,657 59,131 286.3 %
Operating expenses:
Servicing costs4,077 2,934 1,143 39.0 %
Underwriting fees2,344 2,562 (218)(8.5)%
Professional and consulting fees2,949 1,347 1,602 118.9 %
Technology and data analytics6,296 4,293 2,003 46.7 %
Bad debt expense16,064 9,163 6,901 75.3 %
Compensation costs6,874 5,514 1,360 24.7 %
General and administrative4,278 4,236 42 1.0 %
Total operating expenses42,882 30,049 12,833 42.7 %
Income from operations36,906 (9,392)46,298 (493.0)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt(402)(823)421 (51.2)%
Interest expense and other fees(13,588)(8,577)(5,011)58.4 %
Change in fair value of warrant liability102 — 102 100.0 %
Income before provision for income taxes23,018 (18,792)41,810 (222.5)%
Provision for income taxes(487)— (487)100.0 %
Net income (loss)$22,531 $(18,792)$41,323 (219.9)%

Rental revenue

Rental revenue increased by $155.9 million, or 171.4%, to $246.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $91.0 million for 2019. This was primarily due to the Company’s addition of Wayfair as a merchant partner, which accounted for 72% of origination dollars in 2020, versus 58% in 2019. The difference in percentage of origination dollars was mainly driven by Wayfair being a merchant partner for the full year in 2020, versus a partial year in 2019. Additionally, the Company experienced a 119.1% increase in originations over the period due to the acceleration of e-commerce activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. A timing lag exists between originations and rental revenue because an origination in a given period will result in revenue over the resulting lease term, which can occur in subsequent periods. The 171.4% increase in rental revenue during 2020 was partly driven by a larger proportion of 2019 originations occurring towards the end of the year, as 38.3% of 2019 originations occurred in the fourth quarter 2019. These later 2019 originations resulted in increased rental revenue in early 2020.

Other revenue

Other revenue decreased by approximately $0.2 million, or 45.7%, to $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $0.4 million in 2019 due to our sub-lease arrangement ending in July 2019.

Service fees

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Revenue from service fees decreased by $0.4 million, or 85.8%, to $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $0.5 million in 2019. This was primarily driven by the termination of a pilot partnership in February 2019.

Cost of revenue

Cost of revenue increased $96.2 million, or 135.1%, to $167.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $71.2 million in 2019. This increase was primarily driven by the proportional increase in rental revenue and origination volume over this period, which was offset by lower depreciation related to property held for lease. Cost of revenue as a percentage of total revenue decreased to 67.7% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 77.5% in 2019. Cost of revenue decreased as a percentage of total revenue due to improved underwriting and payment collection performance.

Gross profit

Gross profit increased by $59.1 million, or 286.3%, to $79.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $20.7 million in 2019. This was due to the individual revenue and cost of revenue drivers described above. These individual drivers were caused by an overall increase in performance on recently originated leases, which was due to improved underwriting and payment collection performance.
Operating expenses

The following tables quantify the dollar amounts of operating costs versus total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.

(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,Percentage of Total Revenue
2020201920202019
Total revenue$247,200 $90,996 — — 
Servicing costs4,077 2,934 1.6 %3.2 %
Underwriting fees2,344 2,562 0.9 %2.8 %
Professional and consulting fees2,949 1,347 1.2 %1.5 %
Technology and data analytics6,296 4,293 2.5 %4.7 %
Bad debt expense16,064 9,163 6.5 %10.1 %
Compensation costs6,874 5,514 2.8 %6.1 %
General and administrative4,278 4,236 1.7 %4.7 %

Servicing Costs

Servicing costs increased by $1.1 million, or 39.0%, to $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $2.9 million in 2019. This was primarily due to the increase in overall revenue during the same period and was offset by scalability efficiencies achieved in 2020.

Underwriting fees

Underwriting fees decreased by approximately $0.2 million, or 8.5%, to $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $2.6 million in 2019. This was primarily due to scalability efficiencies achieved during the year as the Company refines its customer underwriting model, specifically the Company’s ability to favorably renegotiate third party data costs, despite an increase in underwriting activity associated with increased revenue volume over the period.

Professional and consulting fees

Professional and consulting fees increased by $1.6 million, or 118.9%, to $2.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $1.3 million in 2019. This increase was primarily driven by the pending business combination, which resulted in $1.0 million of non-capitalizable expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020.
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Additionally, the Company incurred approximately $0.4 million of legal fees associated with investor transactions for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Technology and data analytics

Technology and data analytics expense increased by $2.0 million, or 46.7%, to $6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $4.3 million in 2019. This was primarily due to a proportional addition to employee headcount to continue the build-out of the Company’s technological infrastructure and continued improvement and management of our proprietary risk model algorithms.

Bad debt expense

Bad debt expense primarily consists of provisions for uncollectible accounts receivable, net of recoveries. Bad debt expense increased by $6.9 million, or 75.3%, to $16.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $9.2 million in 2019. This increase was primarily driven by the proportional increase in rental revenue over this period, which was offset by decreased charge-off rates due to better underwriting and payment collection performance.

Compensation costs

Compensation costs increased by $1.4 million or 24.7% for the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase is related to added headcount to support the growth trajectory of the Company.

General and administrative

General and administrative expense consists primarily of occupancy costs, travel and entertainment, and other general overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization related to office equipment. General and administrative expense was flat year over year.

Loss on extinguishment of debt

Loss on extinguishment of debt decreased by $0.4 million, or 51.2%, to $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $0.8 million in 2019. Loss on extinguishment of debt for the year ended December 31, 2020 was related to the repayment of the Company’s non-revolving line of credit and bridge loan, and the 2019 loss on extinguishment was related to the capital raising activities and conversion of convertible notes during that period.

Interest expense and other fees

Interest expense and other fees increased by $5.0 million, or 58.4%, to $13.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $8.6 million in 2019. This was primarily due to an increase in total outstanding principal balances on our debt during 2020. Principal balances increased due to increased origination volume.

Change in fair value of warrant liability

Change in fair value of warrant liability was $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and was $0 in 2019. This consists of changes in the fair value of the Company’s warrant liability, in 2020 which was driven by a reduction in the fair value of this liability between issuance and year-end.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In addition to gross profit and net income, which are measures presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we believe that adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA provide relevant and useful information which is widely used by analysts, investors, and competitors in our industry in assessing performance. Adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA are supplemental measures of our performance that are neither required by nor presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as substitutes
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for U.S. GAAP metrics such as gross profit, operating income, net income, or any other performance measures derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP and may not be comparable to similar measures used by other companies.

Adjusted gross profit represents gross profit less variable operating expenses, which are servicing costs, underwriting fees, and bad debt expense. We believe that adjusted gross profit provides a meaningful understanding of one aspect of our performance specifically attributable to total revenue and the variable costs associated with total revenue.

Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that is defined as net income (loss) before interest expense and other fees, change in fair value of warrant liability, (provision) benefit for income taxes, depreciation and amortization on property and equipment, impairment of leased assets, stock-based compensation expense, and transaction costs associated with the Merger. Adjusted net income is a non-GAAP financial measure that is defined as net (loss) income before change in fair value of warrant liability, stock-based compensation expense and transaction costs associated with the Merger.

Adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA are useful to an investor in evaluating our performance because these measures:

Are widely used to measure a company’s operating performance;
Are financial measurements that are used by rating agencies, lenders and other parties to evaluate our credit worthiness; and
Are used by our management for various purposes, including as measures of performance and as a basis for strategic planning and forecasting.

The following table presents gross profit and adjusted gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019:

(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,2021-2020 Change2020-2019 Change
202120202019$%$%
Total revenue$303,113 $247,200 $91,877 $55,913 22.6 %$155,323 169.1 %
Cost of revenue214,124 167,412 71,220 46,712 27.9 %96,192 135.1 %
Gross profit88,989 79,788 20,657 9,201 11.5 %59,131 286.3 %
Less:
Servicing costs4,737 4,077 2,934 660 16.2 %1,143 39.0 %
Underwriting fees1,876 2,344 2,562 (468)(20.0)%(218)(8.5)%
Bad debt expense28,299 16,064 9,163 12,235 76.2 %6,901 75.3 %
Adjusted gross profit$54,077 $57,303 $5,998 $(3,226)(5.6)%$51,305 855.4 %

The reconciliations of net income (loss) to adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:


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(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,2021-2020 Change2020-2019 Change
202120202019$%$%
Net income (loss)$21,206 $22,531 $(18,792)$(1,325)(5.9)%$41,323 (219.9)%
Add back:
Interest expense and other fees16,485 13,588 8,577 2,897 21.3 %5,011 58.4 %
Loss on extinguishment of debt— 402 823 (402)(100.0)%(421)(51.2)%
Change in fair value of warrant liability(36,573)(102)— (36,471)NM(102)NM
Provision for income taxes539 487 — 52 10.7 %487 NM
Depreciation and amortization on property and equipment321 83 65 238 286.7 %18 27.7 %
Impairment of leased assets(1,490)1,433 4,119 (2,923)(204.0)%(2,686)(65.2)%
Stock-based compensation expense (1)
13,476 351 315 13,125 NM36 11.4 %
Transaction costs associated with the Merger (2)
3,350 1,040 — 2,310 222.1 %1,040 NM
Legal fees associated with investor transactions (3)
— 362 — (362)(100.0)%362 NM
Adjusted EBITDA$17,314 $40,175 $(4,893)$(22,861)(56.9)%$45,068 (921.1)%

(1) Includes $0.5 million of employer payroll taxes in 2021.
(2) Consists of non-capitalizable transaction cost associated with the Merger.
(3) Consists of legal expenses incurred in connection with non-recurring investor-related matters including stock transfers, sale of founder shares, and warrant exercises.
NM - calculation is not meaningful

The reconciliations of net income to adjusted net income for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:

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(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,2021-2020 Change2020-2019 Change
202120202019$%$%
Net income (loss)$21,206 $22,531 $(18,792)$(1,325)(5.9)%$41,323 (219.9)%
Add back:
Change in fair value of warrant liability(36,573)(102)— (36,471)35755.9 %(102)NM
Stock-based compensation expense (1)
13,475 351 315 13,124 3739.0 %36 11.4 %
Transaction costs associated with merger (2)
3,350 1,040 — 2,310 222.1 %1,040 NM
Adjusted net income (loss)$1,458 $23,820 $(18,477)$(22,362)(93.9)%$42,297 (228.9)%

(1) Includes $0.5 million of employer payroll taxes.
(2) Consists of non-capitalizable transaction cost associated with the Merger.
NM- calculation is not meaningful

ASC 842 Adoption

For illustrative purposes only, we are disclosing non-GAAP results for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively as if the lessor accounting impacts of ASC 842 were in effect for these periods. Total revenue under ASC 842 and bad debt expense (net of recoveries) under ASC 842 are supplemental disclosures that are neither required by nor presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Management believes these non-GAAP measures for 2021 and 2020 provide relevant and useful information for users of our financial statements, as it provides comparability with the financial results we will be reporting beginning in 2022 when ASC 842 becomes effective and we begin to recognize revenue from customers when the revenue is earned and cash is collected instead of on an accrual basis as we have historically done. Upon adoption, we will no longer record accounts receivable arising from lease receivables due from customers incurred during the normal course of business for lease payments earned but not yet received from the customer or any corresponding allowance for doubtful accounts.

(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,
20212020
As Reported:
Total revenue$303,113 $247,200 
Bad debt expense (net of recoveries)28,299 16,064 
Income before provision for income taxes$21,745 $23,018 
Non-GAAP Results:
Total revenue under ASC 842$277,560 $233,619 
Bad debt expense (net of recoveries) under ASC 842— — 
Income before provision for income taxes under ASC 842$24,491 $25,501 
*Total revenue under ASC 842 also reflects the impact of the change in recognizing revenue when it is earned and cash is collected.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

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The following table presents our cash, restricted cash, and accounts receivable, net, as of December 31, 2021 and 2020:

(in thousands)December 31,
202120202019
Cash$92,494 $65,622 $7,507 
Restricted cash3,937 3,975 4,739 
Accounts receivable, net2,007 1,636 924 

The table below sets forth a summary of our cash flow for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (dollars in thousands):

(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,
202120202019
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$2,166 $(2,142)$(31,584)
Net cash used in investing activities(1,436)(402)91 
Net cash provided by financing activities26,104 59,895 40,777 
Net increase in cash and restricted cash$26,834 $57,351 $9,284 

Operating Activities

Net cash provided by operating activities was $2.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. This reflects our net income of $21.2 million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $213.5 million and net cash outflows of $232.5 million from changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Non-cash charges consisted primarily of increases in depreciation and amortization of $144.0 million, net book value of property buyouts of $45.6 million, bad debt expense of $28.3 million and stock compensation of $13.0 million. Partially offsetting these increases was $14.6 million of impairment expense.

Net cash used in operating activities was $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $29.4 million from $31.6 million used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2019. This reflects our net income of $22.5 million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $177.1 million and net cash outflows of $201.8 million from changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Non-cash charges consisted primarily of depreciation and amortization, which increased $64.4 million; net book value of property buyouts, which increased $19.4 million; impairment expense, which increased $7.1 million; and bad debt expense, which increased $6.9 million.

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities was $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and was primarily due to an increase in capitalized software of $1.0 million coupled with $0.4 million of purchases of property and equipment.

Net cash used in investing activities was $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and was primarily due to purchases of property and equipment of $0.2 million and capitalized software of $0.2 million.

Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $26.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and was due to $38.9 million of cash received from the Merger, net of transaction costs and consideration paid to selling stockholders, $7.0 million of advances on the revolving line of credit, and $0.7 million of proceeds from exercise of stock options. These increases were offset by $20.5 million of principal repayments on the revolving line of credit.

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Net cash provided by financing activities was $59.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and was primarily due to proceeds from revolving line of credit of $39.9 million and net proceeds from term loan of $49.1 million, which was offset by principal repayment on the revolving line of credit of $4.8 million, principal repayment of long term debt of $7.5 million, and principal repayment of the non-revolving line of credit of $16.0 million.

Financing Arrangements

Senior Secured Term Loan and Revolving Loan Facility

On May 14, 2019, Katapult SPV-1 LLC, as borrower ("Borrower"), and Katapult Group, Inc. (f/k/a Cognical, Inc.) entered into a loan and security agreement (the “credit agreement”) with Midtown Madison Management, LLC as agent for various funds of Atalaya Capital Management (“Atalaya”), for a senior secured revolving loan facility (“revolving loan facility”) with an initial commitment of $50.0 million and the lender having the right to increase to a maximum of $150 million commitment over time. The revolving loan facility is subject certain covenants and originally had an 85% advance rate on eligible accounts receivable, which was increased to 90% in March 2020. The annual interest rate on the principal was the LIBOR plus 11% per annum through July 2020. Beginning in August 2020, the interest rate stepped down to LIBOR plus 7.5% per annum. There is a 2% floor on the LIBOR. On September 28, 2020, the lenders increased the maximum commitment to a total of $125.0 million. On December 4, 2020, the Company entered into the ninth amendment to the revolving loan facility. This amendment provided the lenders with the right to increase the revolving commitment amount from $125.0 million to $250.0 million. This right has not yet been exercised by the lenders as of the date of these consolidated financial statements.

Pursuant to the ninth amendment to the credit agreement entered into on December 4, 2020, Atalaya also provided the Company with a senior secured term loan (“term loan facility”) commitment of up to $50.0 million. The Company drew down the full $50.0 million of the term loan facility on December 4, 2020. The term loan facility bears interest at one-month LIBOR plus 8.0% (with a 1% LIBOR floor) and an additional 3% interest per annum will accrue to the principal balance as paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest. Total outstanding principal and PIK interest is $51.7 million at December 31, 2021. An additional 3% interest per annum will accrue to the principal balance as paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest. The term loan facility matures on December 4, 2023.

This credit facility is also subject to certain customary representations, affirmative covenants and negative covenants, which consist of maintaining lease performance metrics, financial ratios related to operating results, and lease delinquency ratios, along with customary negative covenants. The outstanding line of credit, including unpaid principal and interest, is due December 4, 2023 unless there is an earlier event of default such as bankruptcy, default on interest payments, or a change of control (excluding an acquisition by a special purpose acquisition company), at which point the facility may become due earlier. Total outstanding principal under the revolving line of credit was $62.0 million at December 31, 2021.

The negative covenants limit our ability to: incur additional indebtedness; pay dividends, redeem stock or make other distributions; amend our material agreements; make investments; create liens; transfer or sell the collateral for the credit facility; make negative pledges; consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and enter into certain transactions with affiliates. Early repayments of certain amounts under our credit facility are subject to prepayment penalties.

The credit agreement governing our credit facility also requires us to maintain the following financial covenants:

Minimum Trailing Twelve Month Adjusted EBITDA: As of the end of each fiscal month, the TTM Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) must not be less than (i) during the period on and after October 1, 2021 and until (and including) June 30, 2023, ($15,000,000), (ii) during the period on and after July 1, 2023 and until (and including) December 31, 2023, $0.00, and (iii) at all times thereafter, $20,000,000.

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Minimum Tangible Net Worth: As of the end of each fiscal month, the Tangible Net Worth (as defined in the credit agreement) of Katapult Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries, on a consolidated basis, must be greater than or equal to the sum of (i) $(18,500,000) plus (ii) the greater of (A) zero dollars and (B) fifty percent of all aggregate Parent Consolidated Net Income (as defined in the credit agreement) since April 30, 2019 (as determined in accordance with GAAP.

Minimum Liquidity: As of any date of determination, Katapult Holdings, Inc. must not permit Liquidity (as defined in the credit agreement) to be less than $50 million of cash and cash equivalents on hand.

Compliance with Total Advance Rate: At the end of each fiscal month and as of the making of any advance under the credit agreement, the Total Advance Rate (as defined in the credit agreement) must not exceed (i) from the period on or after October 1, 2021 to and including December 31, 2022, 140%, (ii) from January 1, 2023 to and including December 31, 2023, 130% and (iii) at all times thereafter, 120%. If at any time during which there is a Total Advance Rate Reserve Account (as defined in the credit agreement), the Total Advance Rate exceeds the applicable rate for any of the foregoing periods, the borrower may cure such Default (as defined in the credit agreement) by depositing funds in the Total Advance Rate Reserve Account in an amount necessary to reduce the Total Advance Rate to the maximum permitted rate for such period; provided that borrower's right to cure a default may be exercised no more than a total of five (5) times.

Failure to comply with any of these covenants or other obligation or agreement under the credit agreement that is not cured within the specified period under the credit agreement would result in an event of default under the agreement. Upon an event of default, the lenders can exercise their remedies under the credit agreement including the immediate termination of any loan commitments under the agreement and the acceleration of repayment of all obligations under the credit agreement immediately.

During the year ended December 31, 2021, the credit agreement was amended to, among other things: (1) amend the trailing twelve month ("TTM") Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) financial covenant to (2) increase the minimum liquidity covenant to $50.0 million; (3) amend the definition of “Liquidity” to include Cash Equivalents (as defined in the credit agreement): and (4) amend the Total Advance Rate (as defined in the credit agreement) financial covenant. No modifications were made to applicable funding costs or the maturity date of the revolving loan facility.

As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company was in compliance with the covenants in the credit agreement.

On March 14, 2022, the borrower, Katapult Holdings, Inc. and Katapult Group, Inc. entered into the thirteenth amendment to the credit agreement to amend the number of times the borrower can cure a default with respect to compliance with the Total Advance Rate covenant from two to five. As of the date of this report, the Borrower has exercised its right to cure such a default two times.
For additional information on our loan obligations, refer to Notes 7 and 8 of the audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Pledge and Guaranty

Pursuant to the Pledge Agreement, dated as of May 14, 2019, between Katapult Group, Inc. (f/k/a Cognical, Inc.) and Midtown Madison Management, LLC, Katapult Group, Inc. pledged and granted a first priority security interest in all equity interests of the Borrower and any investment property and general intangibles evidenced by or related to such membership interests. Pursuant to the Corporate Guaranty and Security Agreement, dated as of December 4, 2020, by and among Katapult Group, Inc., Legacy Katapult and Midtown Madison Management, LLC, Katapult and Katapult Group, Inc. have granted a first priority security interest in all of their respective assets and Katapult and Katapult Group, Inc. guarantee payment of all obligations of the Borrower under the facility.

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Sources and Material Cash Requirements

Our principal sources of liquidity are our cash, cash flows generated from operations and availability under our revolving credit facility. Our primary uses of cash include purchases of assets held for lease and funding for growth initiatives.

Our ability to fund future operating needs will be dependent on our ability to generate positive cash flows from operations and obtain financing for growth as needed. We have $92.5 million of unrestricted cash at December 31, 2021 which we believe is sufficient to meet our liquidity needs for the next 12 months. We believe we will meet longer-term (beyond 12 months) cash requirements through a combination of available cash on hand, cash flows generated from operations and availability under our revolving credit facility.

The table below summarizes our material cash requirements as of December 31, 2021:

(in thousands)Payments by Year
Total2022-20232024-2025Thereafter
Line of credit (1)
$73,959 $73,959 $— $— 
Long term debt (2)
64,114 64,114 — — 
Operating lease commitments1,422 918 504 — 
Total$139,495 $138,991 $504 $— 

(1) Future cash obligations include scheduled interest payments due based on the interest rate of 9.5% as of December 31, 2021.
(2) Future cash obligations include scheduled interest payments due based on the interest rate of 9.0%, plus 3.0% paid-in-kind interest as of December 31, 2021.

As the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy and our business evolves, we will continue to evaluate our liquidity needs. Should we require additional sources of liquidity, we believe that we can finance our future needs through debt or issuance of additional equity. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain financing through debt or equity issuances on reasonable/favorable terms.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods presented. We evaluate our significant estimates on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions, impacting our reported results of operations and financial condition.

We believe that the accounting estimates described below involve a significant degree of judgment and complexity and have the greatest potential effect on our consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, we believe these are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

For further information, see Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included within Part II Item 8 contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Rental Revenue Recognition

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Property held for lease is leased to customers pursuant to lease purchase agreements with an initial term: typically one week, two weeks, or one month, with non-refundable lease payments. Generally, the customer has the right to acquire title and ownership either through a 90-day purchase option, an early purchase option (buyout) available prior to completion of the full agreement, or by completing all lease renewal payments, generally 10, 12 or 18 months, for ownership. On any current lease, customers have the option to terminate the agreement at any time without penalty in accordance with lease-purchase agreement terms. Accordingly, customer agreements are accounted for as operating leases with lease revenues recognized in the month they are earned based on the accrual basis of accounting. Amounts received from customers who elect purchase options (buyouts) are included in rental revenue, when earned. Lease payments received prior to their due dates are deferred and recorded as unearned revenue and are recognized as revenue in the period in which they are earned. Rental revenue also includes agreed-upon charges assessed to customer lease applications. Payments are received upon submission of the applications and execution of the lease purchase agreements. Services are considered to be rendered and revenue earned over the initial lease term. The Company also may assess fees for missed or late payments, which are recognized as revenue in the billing period in which they are assessed if collectability is reasonably assured. Revenues from leases are reported net of sales taxes.

There are uncertainties involved with applying rental revenue recognition due to the non-prime nature of our consumers, and the conclusion about likelihood to pay after a customer goes delinquent.

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Accounts receivable are recorded net of allowances for doubtful accounts. Accounts receivable consist primarily of lease receivables due from customers incurred during the normal course of business for lease payments earned not yet received from the customer. On a periodic basis, management evaluates its accounts receivable and determines whether to provide an allowance for doubtful accounts or if any accounts should be written off based on past history of write-offs, collections, and current credit conditions. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to provide for uncollected amounts based on historical collection experience and an analysis of the aging of receivables per the following categories: 1-30 days, 31-60 days, 61-90 days. This analysis results in the determination of loss rate percentages that are applied to outstanding receivables in each of these categories as of period end. We write off accounts receivables that are over 90 days contractually past due. Bad debt expense is classified in operating expenses within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. We do not require any security or collateral to support its receivables.

There are uncertainties involved in estimating the allowance for doubtful accounts due to unanticipated changes in the business environment, as well as factors and risks associated with our customers’ behaviors.

Stock-Based Compensation

We measure and record compensation expense related to stock-based awards based on the fair value of those awards as determined on the date of the grant. We recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period of the individual grant, generally equal to the vesting period and uses the straight-line method to recognize stock-based compensation. We use the Black-Scholes-Merton (“Black-Scholes”) option-pricing model to determine the estimated fair value of stock-based awards. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires estimates of highly subjective assumptions, such as expected term, common share price, and volatility, which affect the fair value of each stock option. Forfeitures are accounted for as they are incurred.

There are uncertainties involved when recognizing stock-based compensation expense due to the lack of publicly available share price and volatility data for our common stock. Our valuation utilizes peer company volatility data as well as internally developed valuation models for the common share price which could vary from actual market results.

Income Taxes

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We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method pursuant to ASC 740, Income Taxes. Under this method, we recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is recorded for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized based on all available positive and negative evidence. The determination of whether a deferred tax asset will be realizable is a highly subjective decision based upon estimated future taxable income and could vary from actual results. We recognize a tax benefit only if it is more likely than not the tax position will be sustained on examination by the local taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement with the related tax authority. The changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. We record interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provision for income taxes.

Property Held for Lease, Net of Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment

Property held for lease consists of furniture, consumer electronics, appliances, and other durable goods offered for lease-purchase in the normal course of business. Such property is provided to consumers pursuant to a lease-purchase agreement with a minimum term; typically one week, two weeks, or one month. The renewal periods of the initial lease term of the agreement are typically 10, 12 or 18 months. Consumers may terminate a lease agreement at any time without penalty. The average consumer continues to lease the property for 7 months because the consumer either exercises the buyout (early purchase) options or terminates the lease purchase agreement prior to the end of the 10 to 18 month renewal periods. As a result, property held for lease is classified as a current asset on the consolidated balance sheets.

Property held for lease is carried at net book value. Depreciation for property held for lease is generally provided using the income forecasting method and is included within cost of revenue. Under the income forecasting method, property held for lease is depreciated in the proportion of rents received to total expected rents received based on historical data, which is an activity-based method similar to the units of production method. We provide for impairment for the undepreciated balance of the property held for lease assuming no salvage value with a corresponding charge to cost of revenue. Impairment expense includes expense related to property identified as impaired based on historical data, including default trends, such that the recorded amount closely approximates actual impairment expense incurred during the period. We derecognize the undepreciated net book value of property buyouts as buyouts occur with a corresponding charge to cost of revenue. We periodically evaluate fully depreciated property held for lease, net. When it is determined there is no future economic benefit, the related assets and accumulated depreciation are written-off.

There are uncertainties involved when recognizing expenses related to property held for lease due to the subjective nature of the income forecasting method and estimated salvage value, which could vary from actual results.

Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in this filing for a discussion of accounting pronouncements recently adopted and recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted and their potential impact to our consolidated financial statements.

Emerging Growth Company

As of December 31, 2021, we are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying
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with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies, allowing them to delay the adoption of those standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act. As a result, our consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of companies that are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards that are applicable to public companies. We will remain an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act until the earliest of (a) December 31, 2024, (b) the last date of our fiscal year in which we have a total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (c) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the rules of the SEC with at least $700.0 million of outstanding securities held by non-affiliates or (d) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the previous three years.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to a variety of market and other risks, including the effects of changes in interest rates, and inflation, as well as risks to the availability of funding sources and other risks.

Interest Rate Risk

The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and our financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. As of December, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had interest bearing debt with a principal amount of $113.6 million and $125.5 million, respectively.

Our revolving credit facility is a variable rate loan that accrues interest at a variable rate of interest based on the one month LIBOR rate, subject to a 2% floor, plus 7.5% per annum. As of December 31, 2021, the calculated interest rate is 9.5%.

Inflation Risk

We do not believe that inflation has had, or currently has, a material effect on our business.

Foreign Currency Risk

There was no material foreign currency risk for year ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019. Our activities to date are conducted only in the United States.































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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and our Consolidated Statements of Operations, Stockholders’ Equity and Cash Flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, together with the report of our independent registered public accounting firm, are incorporated herein by reference.














































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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the stockholders and Board of Directors of Katapult Holdings, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Katapult Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP

New York, NY
March 15, 2022

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2018.
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KATAPULT HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
December 31,
20212020
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash$92,494 $65,622 
Restricted cash3,937 3,975 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $6,248 and $4,372 at December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
2,007 1,636 
Property held for lease, net of accumulated depreciation and impairment61,752 66,737 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,249 1,248 
Total current assets164,439 139,218 
Property and equipment, net (Note 4)576 330 
Security deposits91 91 
Capitalized software and intangible assets, net (Note 5)1,056 188 
Total assets$166,162 $139,827 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable2,029 1,688 
Accrued liabilities11,959 12,967 
Unearned revenue2,135 2,652 
Total current liabilities16,123 17,307 
Revolving line of credit (Note 7)61,238 74,316 
Long term debt (Note 8)40,661 36,413 
Other liabilities7,341 12,740 
Total liabilities125,363 140,776 
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Common stock, $.0001 par value-- 250,000,000 shares authorized; 97,574,171 and 31,432,476 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
10 3 
Additional paid-in capital77,632 57,097 
Accumulated deficit(36,843)(58,049)
Total stockholders' equity (deficit)40,799 (949)
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity (deficit)166,162 139,827 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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KATAPULT HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Years Ended December 31,
202120202019
Revenue
Rental revenue$302,794 $246,927 $90,996 
Other revenue319 200 368 
Service fees 73 513 
Total revenue303,113 247,200 91,877 
Cost of revenue214,124 167,412 71,220 
Gross profit88,989 79,788 20,657 
Operating expenses:
Servicing costs4,737 4,077 2,934 
Underwriting fees1,876 2,344 2,562 
Professional and consulting fees5,987 2,949 1,347 
Technology and data analytics8,196 6,296 4,293 
Bad debt expense28,299 16,064 9,163 
Compensation costs26,943 6,874 5,514 
General and administrative11,294 4,278 4,236 
Total operating expenses87,332 42,882 30,049 
Income (loss) from operations1,657 36,906 (9,392)
Loss on extinguishment of debt (402)(823)
Interest expense and other fees(16,485)(13,588)(8,577)
Change in fair value of warrant liability36,573 102  
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes21,745